Appendix 1: Letter to Oliver Cowdery and Others, circa 17 June 1838

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

June [blank] 1838
To and Greeting Whereas the Citizens of have borne with the abuses received from you at different times and on different occasions until it is no longer to be endured, neither will they endure it any longer, having exhausted all the patience they have. We have borne long and suffered incredibly, but we will bear nor suffer any longer and the decree has gone forth from our hearts and shall not return unto us void. Neither think gentlemen in so doing we are trifling with either you or ourselves for we are not. There are no threats from you, no fear of lossing our lives by you or any thing you can say or do will restrain us for out of the County you shall go and no power shall save you, and you shall have three days after you receive this our communication to you including twenty-four hours in each day for you to depart with your families peaceably which you may do undisturbed by any person But in that time if you do not depart we will use the means in our power to cause you to depart for go you shall. We will have no more promises to reform as you have already made and in every instance violated your promise and regarded not the Covenant which you had made; but put both it and us at defiance We have solmnly warned you and that in the most determined manner, that if you did not cease that course of wanton abuse of the Citizens of this County that vengence would overtake you sooner or later, and that when it did [p. 1] come it would be as furious as the Mountains torrent and as terible as the beating tempest But you have affected to despise our warnings and pass them off with a sneer or a grin or a threat and still persued your former course. Vengince sleeps not neither does it slumber; and unless you heed us this time, and attend to our request, it will overtake you at an hour where you do not expect it and at a day when you do not look for it. and for you there shall be no escape; for there is but one decree for you which is depart depart or else a more fatal calamity shall befall you After had been taken by a States warrent for stealing and the stolen property found concealed in the house of ; in which nefarious transaction had also participated. stole the property Conveyed it to and to and there the officers of the law found it. While in the hands of the officers and under an arrest for this vile transaction and if possible to hide your shame from the world like criminals which in deed you were, you appealed to our beloved breathren President Joseph Smith and Men whose characters you had endeavoured to destroy, by every artifice you could invent not even the basest lying excepted notwithstanding all your scandolous attacks, still such was the nobleness of their characters that even vile enemies could not appeal to them in vain They enlisted as you well know other influance to save you from your just fate and they by their influance delivered you out of the hands of the officer While you were pleading [p. [2]] with them you promised reformation you bound yourselves by the most solemn promises that you would never be employed again in abusing any of the citizens of and by such by condescentions did you attempt to escape the workhouse. But now for the sequel did you practice the promised reformation—you know that you did not but by secret efforts continued to practice your inequity and clandestinely to injure their character notwithstanding their kindness to you. Are such things to be borne? You yourselves would answer that they are unsufferable if you were to answer according to the feelings of your own hearts. As we design this paper to be published to the world we will give an epitome of your scandalous conduct and treachery for the last two years. We wish to remind you that and were among the principal of those who were the means of geathering us to this place by their testimony which they gave concerning the plates of the book of Mormon, that they were shown to them by an Angel which testimony we believe now as much as before you so scandalously disgraced it. You commenced your wikedness by heading a party to disturb the worship of the Saints of the first day of the week, and made the in to be a scene of abuse and slander to destroy the reputation of those whom the Church had appointed to be their teachers and for no other cause only that you were not the persons. The Saints in having elected to be a justice of the peace, he used the power of that office, to take their most sacred rights from them, and that [p. [3]] contrary to law. He supported a parcel of Blacklegs in disturbing the worship of the Saints—and when the men whom the Church had chosen to preside over their meetings endeavored to put the house to order— by the authority of his office assisted those wretches in continuing their confusion and threatened the Church with a prosecution for trying to put them out of the house And issued writs against the Saints for endeavouring to sustain rights and bound them under heavy bonds to appear before his honour— and required bonds which were both inhuman and unlawful One of those injured men was a man upwards of seventy years of age the venerable who had been appointed by the Church to preside—a man notorious for his peaceable habits
and united with a gang of counterfiters thieves, liars, and Blacklegs of the deepest die to deceive, cheat and defraud the Saints out of their property by every act and stratagem which wckness [wickedness] could invent using the influance of the vilust persecutors to bring vexatious lawsuits upon vilanous persecutions and even steeling not excepted In the midst of this career for fear the Saints would seek redress at their hands they breathed out threatnings of mobs and actually made attempts with their gang to bring mobs upon them. and his gang such of them as belonged to the Church were called to an account by the Church for their iniquity— they confessed repentance and were again restored to the Church.
But the very first opportunity they were [p. [4]] again practicing their former course. While this wikedness was going on in and his gang were writing letters to in order to distroy the character of every person they thought were standing in their way And and were assisting to prepare the way to throw confusion among the Saints of . During the full career of and s Bogus money business it got abroad into the wold that they were engaged in it, and several gentlemen were preparing to commence a prosecution against . He finding it out took with him and fled to with their familys: stealing a property and bringing it with him; which has within a few weeks past been obtained by the owners by means of a search warrent and he was saved from the Penitentiary by the influance of two influntial men of this place. He also brought notes with him upon which he had received pay and had promised to destroy them since here he made an attempt to sell them to of . And on his arrival reported that he had a note of One thousand dollars against a principal man in this Church when it is a fact that it was a palpable falsehood and had no such thing and he did it for the purpose of injureing his character. Shortly after and left for they were followed by , on whose arrival a general system of slander and abuse was commenced by you all for the purpose of distroying the character of certain individuals whose influance and strict [p. [5]] regard for righteousness you dreded. and not only you but your wives and children led by yourselves were busily engaged in it. Neither were you contented with slandering and vilifying here: but you kept up continual correspondance with your gang of Marauders in incourageing them to go on with their inequity which they did to perfection by smearing falsely to injure the character and property of innocent men—cheating stealing, lying, and instituting vexatious Law Suits, selling bogus money, and also stones and sand for bogus money, in which nefarious business you and were engaged while at . Since your arrival here you have commenced a general system of the same kind of conduct in this place you got up a nasty dirty pettifoggers office pretending to be judges of the law when it is a notorious fact that you are profoundly ignorant of it, and of every other thing calculated to do mankind good or if you know it you take good care never to practice it. And in order to bring yourselves into notice you began to interfere with all the business of the place trying to distroy the character of our merchants and bring their creditors upon them and break them up. In addition to this you steared up men of weak minds to prosecute one another, for the vile purpose of geting a fee for a pettifogger from them. You have been also been threatening continually to enter into a general system of prosecuting—determined as you said to peck a flaw in the titles of those who have purchased city lots and built upon them not that you can do any thing but cause vexatious [p. [6]] lawsuits. And among the most monstrous of all your abominations we have evidence which when Called upon we can produce; that letters sent to the Post Office in this place have been opened and read and distroyed, and the persons to whom they were sent never obtained them—thus ruining the business of the place. We have evidence of a very strong character that you are this very time engaged with a gang of counterfeiters and coiners and blacklegs as some of those characters have lately visited our city from and told what they had come for, and we know assuredly that if we suffer you to continue we may expect and that speedily to find a general system of stealing, cheating, counterfeiting, and burning property as in for so are your associates carrying on there at this time and that encouraged by you by means of letters you send continually to them.
And to crown to whole you have had the audacity to threaten us that if we offered to disturb you—you would get up a mob from and Counties—for this insult if nothing else and your threatenings to shoot us if we offered to molest you We will put you from the County of So help us God
Mile Andrews [Milo Andrus] Ralph Cox Daniel Carn Tru[e]man Brace Dani[e]l Carter S D Hunter Erastus Bingham Elisha Averett Silas Maynard [p. [7]] Elijah Averett Joseph Clark Jr Joseph Corlay John S Higbee Chandler Holbrook Gad Yale Huntington Johnson John Lomy George P Dykes William C Gallaher Anthony Head Richard Howard George Washington Vorheese John W Clunk Harrison H Hills Jotham Maynard Benjamin Benson Timothy B Font Daniel Shearer Solomon Daniels Andrew Moore James B Prie Dwight Hadding Ezekial Billington John Fawsett John Crush Rufus Allen Norvil M Head Alfred Head Lee Joseph Rose William Hewett Lewis Allen Harvey Greene [Green] James Hendrix [Hendricks] James S Allen Ethan Barrows [Barrow] Edward Leaky Jackson Smith Jacob Gates Sydney Tanner James Brashear Nathan Tanner Wernier Carter Nelson Maynard Philo Allen [p. [8]]

Footnotes

  1. 1

    The version in Avard’s testimony adds “and conceive that to bear any longer is a vice instead of a virtue.”  

  2. 2

    Instead of “doing,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “saying.”  

  3. 3

    Instead of “made,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “done.”  

  4. 4

    This charge may have been connected to the printing press or other printing materials that Cowdery brought to Far West in 1837. Cowdery apparently conveyed the press and its accoutrements to John Whitmer and William W. Phelps in exchange for “timbered lands,” and Phelps seems to have taken a prominent role in preparing the press for operation in 1838. In April, shortly after the excommunication of Cowdery, the three men sold the press back to the church. (John Whitmer, Far West, MO, to Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, Kirtland Mills, OH, 29 Aug. 1837, Western Americana Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT; Whitmer, Daybook, 18 Sept. 1837; 15 Dec. [1837 or 1838]; 17 Apr. 1838; Oliver Cowdery, Far West, MO, to Warren Cowdery and Lyman Cowdery [Kirtland, OH], 4 Feb. 1838, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 86; Minutes, 12 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:91–92.)  

    Western Americana Collection. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

    Whitmer, John. Daybook, 1832–1878. CHL. MS 1159.

    Cowdery, Oliver. Letterbook, 1833–1838. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

  5. 5

    The version in Avard’s testimony adds “and did you find them revengeful? no, but.”  

  6. 6

    Instead of “clandestinely,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “secretly.”  

  7. 7

    See Testimony of Three Witnesses, Late June 1829.  

  8. 8

    Cowdery was elected as one of the county’s justices of the peace on 29 Apr. 1837. (Kirtland Township Trustees’ Minutes and Poll Book, 153–154.)  

    Kirtland Township Trustees’ Minutes and Poll Book, 1817–1838. Lake County Historical Society, Painesville, OH.

  9. 9

    Instead of “Oliver Cowdry by the authority of his office assisted those wretches,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “he helped and by the authority of his justices office too, these wretches.”  

  10. 10

    During a meeting in the Kirtland House of the Lord on 13 August 1837, Warren Parrish attempted to remove Joseph Smith Sr. from the pulpit for criticizing dissenters. A fight ensued between the dissenters and Smith family members as well as others loyal to JS. According to Lucy Mack Smith, Joseph Smith Sr. called upon Cowdery in his position as justice of the peace to stop the dissenters, “but Oliver paid no attention.” The next day, Parrish prepared an affidavit before Cowdery, accusing Joseph Smith Sr. and eighteen others of assault. On 15 August, most of the accused men were arrested and pleaded not guilty. A trial was held on 25–26 August 1837, wherein Cowdery found that “the charge against them was not sustained, and they were therefore discharged.” (Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1844–1845, bk. 14, [8]; Transcript of Proceedings, 14 and 25–26 Aug. 1837, State of Ohio v. Joseph Smith Sr. et al [J.P. Ct. 1837], in Cowdery, Docket Book, 225–226.)  

    Cowdery, Oliver. Docket Book, June–Sept. 1837. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  11. 11

    Joseph Smith Sr. was appointed an assistant president of the church on 6 December 1834. (Account of Meetings, Revelation, and Blessing, 5–6 Dec. 1834.)  

  12. 12

    Instead of “one of those injured men was a man upwards of seventy years of age the venerable Father who had been appointed by the Church to preside,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “and one of these was the venerable father, who had been appointed by the church to preside, a man of upwards seventy years of age.”  

  13. 13

    In mid-April 1838, one of the charges brought against Oliver Cowdery in his church trial was “disgracing the Church by being connected in the ‘Bogus’ buisness as common report says.” This charge “was sustained satisfactoryly” by unreported “circumstantial evidence.” Aside from the minutes of Cowdery’s trial, few extant documents mention the allegations regarding counterfeiting. In 1839 Reed Peck, who had left the church and had not personally witnessed events in Kirtland, claimed that “very many credible persons in the [Kirtland Safety] Society have asserted that while the mony fever raged in Kirtland the leaders of the church and others were, more or less, engaged in purchasing and circulating Bogus money or counterfeit coin.” Peck stated that JS and his followers traded accusations with Cowdery and other dissenters over who was responsible for the counterfeiting. (Minutes, 12 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:87, 93; R. Peck to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, pp. 17–18.)  

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  14. 14

    Instead of “gang,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “company.”  

  15. 15

    See, for example, Oliver Cowdery, Far West, MO, to Warren Cowdery, 21 Jan. 1838, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 80–83. A similar charge was made against David Whitmer during his April 1838 excommunication hearing before the Zion high council in Far West. (See Minutes, 13 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:102.)  

    Cowdery, Oliver. Letterbook, 1833–1838. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

  16. 16

    An August 1837 letter from John Whitmer in Missouri to David Whitmer and Cowdery in Kirtland implied that correspondence between Kirtland dissenters and the Missouri Saints was encouraged, if not already occurring. For example, John Whitmer, who was in Far West, wrote to his brother David Whitmer and to Oliver Cowdery, who were still in Kirtland at the time, that they could “Communicate to us any thing that you in your wisdom may think expedient.” Whitmer assured them that because Phelps was the postmaster of Far West, a letter could “be addressed to him on any subject and no one know it.” (John Whitmer, Far West, MO, to Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, Kirtland Mills, OH, 29 Aug. 1837, Western Americana Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.)  

    Western Americana Collection. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

  17. 17

    Instead of “since here he,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “and.”  

  18. 18

    According to Sidney Rigdon, in January 1837 Cowdery sold his share in the Kirtland printing office in exchange for notes from JS and Rigdon. Later that year, Rigdon and JS agreed to allow Cowdery to have one of the two presses in the office if Cowdery would surrender the earlier notes. Rigdon also testified in April 1838 that Cowdery had promised to surrender the notes, but he had not yet done so. (Minutes, 12 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:92–93.)  

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

  19. 19

    This charge against Johnson was presented during his trial held by the Zion high council in April 1838. According to JS, the note was actually the record of a loan that someone—presumably Johnson—had received from the Kirtland Safety Society, with JS acting as cashier. (See Minutes, 13 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:99.)  

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

  20. 20

    Although little of the correspondence survives, at least Cowdery and Johnson appear to have been regularly corresponding with Warren Parrish and other dissenters in the Kirtland area. (See Oliver Cowdery, Far West, MO, to Warren Cowdery and Lyman Cowdery, [Kirtland, OH], 4 Feb. 1838, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 87; Oliver Cowdery to Warren Cowdery and Lyman Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, 24 Feb. 1838, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 87; Stephen Burnett, Orange Township, OH, to Lyman Johnson, 15 Apr. 1838, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 64–66; and Oliver Cowdery, Far West, MO, to Warren Cowdery and Lyman Cowdery, Kirtland Mills, OH, 2 June 1838, Lyman Cowdery, Papers, CHL.)  

    Cowdery, Oliver. Letterbook, 1833–1838. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

    Cowdery, Lyman. Papers, 1834–1858. CHL. MS 3467.

  21. 21

    Soon after JS arrived in Far West earlier that year, he composed a church motto that condemned, among other things, “vexatious lawsuits.” (See Motto, ca. 16 or 17 Mar. 1838.)  

  22. 22

    An August 1838 editorial in the Elders’ Journal alleged that Warren Parrish, a dissenter in Kirtland, traveled to Tinker’s Creek, Ohio, to buy a box of counterfeit coin but upon his return discovered that the box contained only sand and stones. The editorial claimed that “Parrish stole the paper out of the institution, and went to buying bogus or counterfeit coin with it” and that he “was aided by his former associates to take his paper, and go and buy bogus with it.” (Editorial, Elders’ Journal, Aug. 1838, 58; see also Letter from Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde, between 22 and 28 May 1838.)  

  23. 23

    Although all three men were named in this letter, during their excommunication hearings before the Zion high council only Cowdery was accused of being connected with counterfeiters in the Kirtland area. (See Minutes, 12 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:87, 92–93.)  

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

  24. 24

    Instead of “you Oliver Cowdry David Whitmer and Lyman E Johnson were engaged while at Kirtland,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and Lyman E Johnson were engaged while you were there.”  

  25. 25

    Cowdery and Johnson both began to study law while in Far West and apparently attempted to offer legal counsel, especially to redeem promissory notes, although apparently neither man had been licensed by the state of Missouri to practice law. (Oliver Cowdery, Far West, MO, to Warren Cowdery and Lyman Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, [10] Mar. 1838, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 92; David Frampton, Justice of the Peace Docket Entry, CHL; Attornies at Law [18 Feb. 1835], Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri [1835], p. 90, secs. 1–5.)  

    Cowdery, Oliver. Letterbook, 1833–1838. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

    The Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri, Revised and Digested by the Eighth General Assembly, During the Years One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Four, and One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Five. Together with the Constitutions of Missouri and of the United States. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Chambers and Knapp, 1841.

  26. 26

    Instead of “purchased,” the version in Avard’s testimony has “bought.”  

  27. 27

    Both men were charged by the Zion high council with bringing “vexatious lawsuits” against members of the church in April 1838. (Minutes, 12 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:85; Minutes, 13 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:96.)  

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

  28. 28

    William W. Phelps was the postmaster in Far West. In 1837, John Whitmer wrote to Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, explaining that Phelps’s position meant they could confidentially send letters that were critical of JS to Far West. Phelps later recalled that the post office was a major point of contention between himself and church leaders in June 1838 and that there was a failed attempt to remove him as postmaster prior to his reconciliation. (John Whitmer, Far West, MO, to Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, Kirtland Mills, OH, 29 Aug. 1837, Western Americana Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT; William W. Phelps, Testimony, Richmond, MO, Nov. 1838, pp. [85]–[86], Transcript of Proceedings, 12–29 Nov. 1838 [State of Missouri v. JS et al. for Treason and Other Crimes].)  

    Western Americana Collection. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

  29. 29

    The printing office in Kirtland had been destroyed by fire. (Historical Introduction to Prospectus for Elders’ Journal, 30 Apr. 1838, in JSP, D6:130.)  

    JSP, D6 / Ashurst-McGee, Mark, David W. Grua, Elizabeth Kuehn, Alexander L. Baugh, and Brenden W. Rensink, eds. Documents, Volume 6: February 1838–August 1839. Vol. 6 of the Documents series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Ronald K. Esplin, Matthew J. Grow, and Matthew C. Godfrey. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2017.

  30. 30

    Avard and Cowdery had apparently had some negative interactions prior to 1838, as indicated by a comment by Cowdery in early June 1838: “Avard arrived some time since. He appears very friendly, but I look upon [him] with so much contempt, that he will probably get but little from me.” The tension between Avard and Cowdery may partly explain why Avard signed his name first. Soon after the letter to the dissenters was composed, Avard was selected as a general in the Daughter of Zion society. (Oliver Cowdery, Far West, MO, to Warren Cowdery and Lyman Cowdery, Kirtland Mills, OH, 2 June 1838, Lyman Cowdery, Papers, CHL; R. Peck to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 45; see also Historical Introduction to Constitution of the Society of the Daughter of Zion, ca. Late June 1838.)  

    Cowdery, Lyman. Papers, 1834–1858. CHL. MS 3467.

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  31. 31

    George Pitkin was the sheriff of Caldwell County. (George Pitkin, Testimony, Nauvoo, IL, 1 July 1843, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL.)  

    Nauvoo, IL. Records, 1841–1845. CHL. MS 16800.

  32. 32

    Philo Dibble was lieutenant colonel of the Caldwell County regiment of the Missouri state militia. (Dibble, “Philo Dibble’s Narrative,” 88.)  

    Dibble, Philo. “Philo Dibble’s Narrative.” In Early Scenes in Church History, Faith-Promoting Series 8, pp. 74–96. Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882.

  33. 33

    Dimick B. Huntington was “city constable & collector” of Far West in 1838. Soon after the letter to the dissenters was composed, Huntington was selected as captain of the guard in the Daughter of Zion society. (Dimick Huntington, Reminiscences and Journal, [14]–[15].)  

    Huntington, Dimick B. Reminiscences and Journal, 1845–1847. Dimick B. Huntington, Journal, 1845–1859. CHL. MS 1419, fd. 1.

  34. 34

    George W. Robinson was colonel of the Caldwell County regiment of the Missouri state militia. Soon after the letter to the dissenters was composed, Robinson was selected as a colonel in the Daughter of Zion society. (Dibble, “Philo Dibble’s Narrative,” 88; R. Peck to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 45.)  

    Dibble, Philo. “Philo Dibble’s Narrative.” In Early Scenes in Church History, Faith-Promoting Series 8, pp. 74–96. Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882.

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  35. 35

    A comparison of the two extant copies of the letter indicate that in the original, Richard Howard was the thirty-sixth and final man to sign in the first column of the first page.  

  36. 36

    Soon after the letter to the dissenters was composed, Carter was selected as captain general—the ranking officer subject only to the First Presidency—in the Daughter of Zion society. (R. Peck to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839, p. 45; Constitution of the Society of the Daughter of Zion, ca. Late June 1838.)  

    Peck, Reed. Letter, Quincy, IL, to “Dear Friends,” 18 Sept. 1839. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

  37. 37

    A comparison of the two extant copies of the letter indicate that in the original, Joseph W. Coolidge was the thirty-sixth and final man to sign in the second column of the first page.  

  38. 38

    A comparison of the two extant copies of the letter indicate that in the original, James Brashear was the fifth and final man to sign in the first column of the second page.  

  39. 39

    A comparison of the two extant copies of the letter indicate that in the original, Philo Allen was the sixth and final man to sign in the second column of the second page.