Appendix 3: Statement on Marriage, circa August 1835
- Source Note
On 17 August 1835, and presented what was probably a collection of unbound gatherings or signatures of the forthcoming Doctrine and Covenants to a general assembly of the church in , Ohio. Representatives from different priesthood offices expressed approval of the work and testified of their satisfaction with it. During the proceedings, and Cowdery presented two additional documents to be included in the volume: the statement featured here, which the minutes refer to as “Rules for Marriage among the saints”; and a declaration on “laws in general. & church government.” The assembly accepted both to be “attached to the book,” and they were included as sections 101 and 102 in the Doctrine and Covenants, which was available by September 1835.Although the text of the statement on marriage suggests that it was written partly because the church had been charged with fornication and polygamy, the statement may also have been produced in an effort to claim the right for members of the church’s clergy to solemnize marriages. Earlier that year, the Court of Common Pleas had denied a license to perform marriages because he was judged not a “regularly ordained minister of the gospel, within the meaning” of ’s 1824 statute on marriage. That statute allowed “the several religious societies agreeably to the rules and regulations of their respective churches, to join” men and women “together as husband and wife.” This statement on marriage may have been the church’s formal declaration of just such “rules and regulations,” published so that JS and other church leaders could perform marriages under Ohio law.The authorship of the statement is unclear, but it has generally been attributed to . In 1867, stated that Cowdery had requested that a proclamation disavowing plural marriage be included in the Doctrine and Covenants, but JS had refused to pen one, stating he would “have nothing to do with it.” According to one observer, in 1869, Young explained further that “Cowdry wrote it, and incisted on its being incerted in the Book of D.&C. contrary to the thrice expressed wish and refusal of the Prophet Jos. Smith.” JS’s only specific objection that Young noted was to the mention of polygamy. There are no records specifying whether JS disapproved of the rest of the statement. There is also no evidence indicating whether JS contributed to the statement’s creation. He signed a preface included at the beginning of the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants that stated that the book presented “our belief . . . the faith and principles of this society as a body.” But since the preface was written six months before the book was published and likely before the statement on marriage was composed, it is possible that the statement on marriage was included by Cowdery and printed without JS’s permission or even against his wishes. JS was absent when the statement was read to and approved by the congregation in August 1835. Since it is unclear whether JS was involved in producing the statement or whether he approved it, it is included as an appendix of this volume rather than as a featured text.
U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.
The Statutes of Ohio and of the Northwestern Territory, Adopted or Enacted from 1788 to 1833 Inclusive: Together with the Ordinance of 1787; the Constitutions of Ohio and of the United States, and Various Public Instruments and Acts of Congress: Illustrated by a Preliminary Sketch of the History of Ohio; Numerous References and Notes, and Copious Indexes. 3 vols. Edited by Salmon P. Chase. Cincinnati: Corey and Fairbank, 1833–1835.
Bradshaw, M. Scott. “Joseph Smith’s Performance of Marriages in Ohio.” BYU Studies 39, no. 4 (2000): 23–69.
Van Orden, Bruce A. “W. W. Phelps: His Ohio Contributions, 1835–36.” In Regional Studies in Latter-Day Saint Church History: Ohio, edited by Milton V. Backman Jr., 45–62. Provo, UT: Department of Church History and Doctrine, Brigham Young University, 1990.
Phelps, William W. Papers, 1835–1865. BYU.
Watt, George D. Papers, ca. 1846–1865. CHL.
Smith, Joseph F. Diary, Sept. 1869–Apr. 1870. Joseph F. Smith, Papers, 1854–1918. CHL. MS 1325, box 2, fd. 5.
Journal of Discourses. 26 vols. Liverpool: F. D. Richards, 1855–1886.
Provo, UT, Central Stake. General Minutes, 1852–1977. CHL. LR 9629 11.
JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. History, 1838–1856. Vols. A-1–F-1 (original), A-2–E-2 (fair copy). Historian’s Office, History of the Church, 1839–ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, boxes 1–7. The history for the period after 5 Aug. 1838 was composed after the death of Joseph Smith.
(a“Celestial Marriage,” Deseret News, 2 June 1886, 310; Bachman, “Ohio Origins of the Revelation on Eternal Marriage,” 24–28.bOliver Cowdery, Far West, MO, to Warren Cowdery, 21 Jan. 1838, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 80–83; JS, Journal, 12 Apr. 1838; Minute Book 2, 12 Apr. 1838; William E. McLellin, Independence, MO, to Joseph Smith III, [Plano, IL], July 1872, typescript, Letters and Documents Copied from Originals in the Office of the Church Historian, Reorganized Church, CHL; Hancock, “Autobiography of Levi Ward Hancock,” 50, 61–65.cWoodruff, Journal, 26 Aug. 1857; Brigham Young, Discourse, 8 Sept. 1867, in George D. Watt, Discourse Shorthand Notes, 8 Sept. 1867, Pitman Shorthand Transcriptions, CHL; Walker, Journal, 26 July 1872; “History of the Church,” 122; see also Hales, “Fanny Alger and Joseph Smith’s Pre-Nauvoo Reputation,” 112–190; and Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, 25–42; for a refutation of Cowdery’s involvement in polygamy, see Hales, “Accusations of Adultery or Polygamy Against Oliver Cowdery,” 279–293.dRevelation, 12 July 1843, in Revelations Collection, CHL [D&C 132].)
Deseret News. Salt Lake City. 1850–.
Bachman, Danel W. “New Light on an Old Hypothesis: The Ohio Origins of the Revelation on Eternal Marriage.” Journal of Mormon History 5 (1978): 19–32.
Cowdery, Oliver. Letterbook, 1833–1838. Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.
McLellin, William E. Letter, Independence, MO, to Joseph Smith III, [Plano, IL], July 1872. Letters and Documents Copied from Originals in the Office of the Church Historian, Reorganized Church, no date. Typescript. CHL. MS 9090. Original at CCLA.
Hancock, Mosiah Lyman. "Autobiography of Levi Ward Hancock," ca. 1896. CHL. MS 570.
Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.
Watt, George D. Papers, ca. 1846–1865. CHL.
Walker, Charles L. Journal, May 1866–Jan. 1873. Charles L. Walker, Papers, 1854–1899. CHL.
“History of the Church.” Juvenile Instructor 6, no. 16 (5 Aug. 1871): 122–123.
Hales, Brian C. “Fanny Alger and Joseph Smith’s Pre-Nauvoo Reputation.” Journal of Mormon History 35, no. 4 (Fall 2009): 112–190.
Compton, Todd. In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith. Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2001.
Hales, Brian C. “‘Guilty of Such Folly?’: Accusations of Adultery or Polygamy against Oliver Cowdery.” In Days Never to Be Forgotten: Oliver Cowdery, edited by Alexander L. Baugh, 279–293. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2009.
Revelations Collection, 1831–ca. 1844, 1847, 1861, ca. 1876. CHL. MS 4583.
Smith, Samuel. Diary, Feb. 1832–May 1833. CHL. MS 4213.
Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.