Letter from Heber C. Kimball, 9 July 1840

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

EPISTLE.
, England,)
July 9th, 1840)
Dear Brother Joseph,
I now embrace this opportunity of writing this epistle to you in order to give you a sketch of my travels since I left you, and of the progress of the work of God in this land, together with the signs of the times and of the conflicts which I and my brethren have endured during our journey to this land. You very well remember the time and situation in which we left our homes;— and I started together. We were both very sick and we likewise left our families very sick. Not being well able to travel brother Bently took us on our way fifteen miles to brother Duel’s [Osmyn Duell’s]. This was on the 18th of September, we tarried at brother Duel’s house overnight and next day he took us to . Another brother volunteered there, and the same day took us on our way as far as which is fifty miles from . When we arrived at in consequence of the fatigues of the journey I was taken with the chill fever again at the sisters Pitkin’s:— after being there one or two days, I then went to Doctor Staley’s and remained under the care of Sister Staley and her daughter until the 25th, my pain and afflictions were very severe. I received great kindness from them and also from the Sisters Pitkin; and I pray that the Lord may abundantly bless them, and administer comfort and blessings to them in every time of need; ’s health was very poor in deed; he was not able to sit up but a little while at a time. While we were at Brothers , , and overtook us, they being also considerably sick and very feeble. The at were kind and administered to our wants and assissted us on our journey. My sorrow was great on leaving as well as on leaving , to see so many of our brethren sick and dying in consequence of being driven and being exposed to hunger and cold.
We all left on the 25th, Brother took and as far as Brother ’s distance about 9 miles, Brothers , , and had a horse and wagon of their own to help them on their way. left us and predicted many things which should come to pass, left his blessing with us and bid us farewell. May God bless him and save him in [p. 859] his kingdom. Next day took us, and carried us to ’s: while on the road the chills came upon me again, and I suffered much pain and fatigue. When we got there we found sick in bed, and the other brethren not much better. Next day took us on our journey about twenty-five miles; to the place where resided, at the town of Pitsfield. The other brethren left us at ’s and took another road.
Next day carried us about four miles to another town where your Uncle resided, we arrived a few days after his death. Next day Brother Rogers carried us to Morgan county, town of Winchester. to the house of Roswell Murray my father-in-law, where we found two of ’s brothers and one sister; and other brethren of the who had been scattered into that part from . These brethren had been stripped of their property and smitten &c. yet we found them in comfortable circumstances, rejoicing in God.
From thence Brother carried us to the town of , distance twelve miles; my father-in-law went with us on a visit to his friends in the east. The next day the brethren at carried us to a distance of about forty miles:— this was on the 5th of October. Here we again met with Brothers , , and ; at this place was taken sick, we remained here until the 11th, then the brethren there gave us a horse and fitted up a wagon, and putting both horses to the wagon we all started together: they also gave us some money to assist us on our journey.— We continued on our journey five or six days until we arrived at on the banks of Wabash river on the 17th, during this time our axle tree broke twice, and we had to suffer hunger in consequence of having to cross large prairies, and the food we got was altogether johnny-cake, and corn dodger, and poor bacon. I was very sick during most part of this journey; sometimes I thought I scarcely could live. We put up at . I was here taken out of the wagon and laid upon the bed; the , his wife, and were obliged to watch almost all the night in order to keep a breath of life in me. Next morning the brethren came to us: my feelings were for them to go on their journey and leave me and with me. I requested them to lay their hands on me and pray for me, which they did previous to their departure. I was then not able to sit up: they left us in tears, some of them not expecting to behold my face again. In about an hour after the brethren departed I arose from my bed; and in a few days we started on our journey. The took us in his carriage and carried us twenty miles. Then we were taken by Doctor [Lenox] Knight to Pleasant Garden about four miles further.
After tarrying there a few days carried us ten miles to a brother’s house.— Next day the brother took us on our journey fifteen miles to the town Bellville. A storm arose which obliged us to put up here. was taken very sick and was obliged to go to bed: we tarried until the next morning. The landlord and landlady were very kind to us and received our testimony: and I think I never saw better feelings towards us as a people than was manifested in this place, being southern people, and may the Lord bless them and gather out his elect. The next day we took coach leaving some of the people in tears. We continued on our journey mostly night and day until we arrived at on November 3rd, where we again overtook Brothers , , and and my father-in-law. This reminded me of a prediction which I delivered on the morning they left us, viz. that we would get to before they would: same day we proceeded to .
The brethren had taken up on the road where he had been confined by sickness. When we got to being overcome by the fatigues of our journey, we were most of us taken sick again with the chill fever, some of us were confined to our beds.— We remained there until the 22nd: some one of us preached in the every Sabbath during our stay there. We found the saints in a rather dis-organized state and disagreed, dwelling upon things that were past and finding fault, We found some few that were very kind to us and administered to us in our sickness, others felt disposed to cast reflections upon us, saying that our sickness came upon us in consequence of our unrighteousness; and when the brethren were suffering keenly from the effects of fatigue and sickness: these things were heaped upon them in an unfeeling manner, and when we were preparing to start on our journey, they would not administer to our wants nor help us on our journey, saying that they did not believe we were sent of God, and casting many other reflections upon us (that is many of them,) if it were necessary I could mention names. May the Lord bless and preserve those who did minister to our necessities, for the time will come when they shall be rewarded for their deeds of kindness. On the 22nd, we left for . We did not sail from this place until the 26th on ac [p. 860]count of a heavy snow storm on the lake. On the 27th we arrived at . On the 28th the brethren left me at Byron eight miles east of Batavia and pursued their course to the east, I stayed to visit my friends at Byron,
Next day I took cars for the city of , and found one of my sisters there. Taking a violent cold I was confined here about a week During this time I stayed one night with Brother , he lives two miles from the city. He was glad to see me, and inquired much about you and the rest of the brethren: he seemed to be firm in the faith of the gospel and has much love for his brethren. then took me in his wagon and carried me to Victor within twelve or fourteen miles of the place where you obtained the record of the Book of Mormon. I remained there until about the tenth of February, preached in Victor twice, three, one of them was my ’s brother and his wife. The snow continued about three feet deep while I was there, being very cold and blustering. There is much good feeling towards us as a poople [people] in that region.
I took coach at for , being short of money to pay my expenses I was confined to one meal a day. When I got to , the North river being froze up, I went part of the way on the ice on runners, and part of the way by land on wheels. When we went to Jersey city, (as we went up on that side,) the coachman not being willing to fulfil his engagement and take us over to . and I being destitute of money, I mentioned it to the passengers and a gentleman put his hand in his pocket and gave me a quarter dollar. Then, when we got to the Ferry, the ferryman wanted six-pence more each; not having any, it prompted me to pray to the Lord to blind his eyes so that he might overlook me, it was even so; so we see that God will hear prayer when we call upon him for small things. We went across the river and put up at the Hotel, where I pawned my trunk for my supper and breakfast.
Next morning I went in pursuit of the brethren, being Sabbath day morning. The first one I met with was , I then found Elders and , and the rest of the brethren; and if I ever felt to praise God it was then, to get in company with my brethren again. I went with the brethren to meeting and my wants were made known, and I received means to redeem my trunk. The rest of the brethren were in similar circumstances with myself, having come into the in like manner. When we arrived there we found the saints faithful, but not many adding. We concluded it best to lift up our voices and preach the gospel, and in about two or three weeks, there was upwards of forty added. These together with the other saints administered to our wants and provided for us provisions, bedding and money to go to .
I never saw greater kindness than was manifested towards us in , , and other places: and I feel to bless them in the name of the Lord, that his peace shall rest upon them. On the 9th day of March, six of us went aboard the ship Patrick Henry, viz: , , , , and ; many of the saints went along with us to the ship’s side, where we bade them farewell. We set sail the same day and on the 6th day of April, we landed at , in tolerable health,
During our passage over we had two very heavy gales; the ship’s mate said he had not seen such for fifteen years back: the ship’s crew was kind to us. We remained in until the 9th in company with who had been there a short time and raised a small church.
On the 9th we took cars for , where in a short time we found , , and well and in good spirits promulgating the gospel through the towns and cities. Their joy was great to see us, yea, beyond measure; they had often longed to see us and prayed that the Lord would send us unto them, the saints universally were rejoiced to see us and the news of our arrival spread far and near in a short time. Our enemies had reproached the saints and boasted, because (they said) we should never return; and in fact it was believed amongst the enemies that we should no more return. The saints had been troubled some on this account, and consequently their joy was greatly increased to see my face again, and still more to see some of my brethren with me,
Many blessings were poured upon us from all quarters, especially from those who were before we left ; we also found that those who had joined the since that time, joined in the theme of rejoicing, and hailed us with a hearty welcome. As soon as the general bustle was subsided the met in council and organized themselves, and into the .—Then on the 15th, the churches met in conference in the cock-pit at ; the total number of members represented was one thousand six hundred and seventy-one; the churches all in good standing, excepting two. From that conference the brethren separated to different [p. 861] parts of the country, some going north, some east, some west, and others south. I remained visiting the old in order to strengthen and organize, and build them up; I continued in this way until about the first of July.
During this period many were amongst the old churches, and even some who had been cut off from the church, returned and mourned that they had suffered themselves to be overcome. I always was received with the greatest joy, wherever I went, in fact, it has been a general time of rejoicing amongst us. You would be astonished to witness the anxiety which is manifested for the well-being of the saints in ; and for your own welfare and your counsellors; and for the , and all the , , and officers; and also, to see the interest manifested amongst them for the saints in , while we have related to them their sufferings, during the late persecution; and notwithstanding we have kept nothing back of the sufferings of the saints in , yet, it is astonishing to see the universal anxiety there is manifest amongst the saints here to get away to the land of promise and help to build up . As soon as we can possibly get them baptised they immediately begin to want to go to , for they declare that that is Zion. Many of the saints are realizing the gifts of the spirit, many speak in tongues, others interpret, some prophecy, and others have the gift of healing.
The work is rolling on as you will see by the number that were baptized since the last . We held our last conference on the 6th of July, in the Carpenter’s Hall, . The number of members then represented was two thousand five hundred and thirteen. There was also stated to be fifty nine elders, one hundred and twenty-two , sixty-one , and thirteen ; these all in good standing. Before the conference was closed the called for volunteers to go and preach the gospel; when the number manifested was ascertained to be about twenty-eight, who are immediately going forth; some are gone and the others will speedily follow.
Brothers , , and expect to start for in about three weeks. is going to assist in the printing while he goes to after his family. will remain in the regions round about here until the next conference and will assist some in the office. Elder is laboring in . Elder is laboring in Edinburgh, Scotland. Brothers and are going to Scotland. Brothers [Alexander] Wright and [Samuel] Mulliner are already there. Elder is going to Bedford, and Elder is going to Birmingham.
I would now say that a large company of the saints are preparing to start for this fall. And Elder is appointed to go with them. Many of the churches that I have been amongst are preparing to move off next spring: they are selling their property and settling up their affairs and expect to move off in churches early in the spring. I would also say, that the way is opening for the gospel into Ireland: one brother has been and expects to go there directly; many that have been baptised have friends there. One brother has enlisted into the army; Elders and ordained him an elder, and he is gone into the army: we have lately received a letter from him and he is now lifting up his voice in the army.
With regard to the state of the we may say it is bad indeed: trade appears to be growing worse, in fact, many branches of it is almost at a stand, and not expected much to improve for some months. Thousands are out of employ, and we may safely say that there are thousands famishing for want of bread: we often see in the streets whole families begging for bread; and in many instances some respectable looking characters may be seen singing through the streets to obtain a little bread; it is truly heart rending to see so many small children, nearly naked, going from house to house begging. This scene of things is passing before our eyes daily, and we look upon it with sorrow and regret: at the same time it is that which is spoken of by the mouth of the prophets, and we feel to pray without ceasing that God may roll on his work, and restore that which is lost and establish peace, and that the knowledge of God may cover the earth as the waters cover the sea.
We hear of wars and rumors of wars all around, and we can truly say according to the revelations, that God is about to come out of his hiding place and vex the nations of the earth in consequence of the wicked stewards not being willing to administer justice to the saints of God in and elsewhere.
I will now give you an extract from the “Northern Star” headed, “Distress of the people of Ireland.” “It would be impossible to find words to describe to you the state of the people throughout the provinces for want of food. Potatoes have mounted up to eight pence per fourteen pounds generally; in some places they are ten pence to one shilling, and the contrast of employment is distressing in the extreme. You are long aware from official ta [p. 862]bles laid before the house of Commons, that the average price of labor in Ireland, for thirty or forty weeks in the year, is eight pence per day, for an able-bodied man; for the remainder of the season, principally during the summer months, one-fourth of the entire population are blank idle.
[“]Now, observe, a stone (fourteen pounds) of potatoes will hardly give a man, his wife, and four or five children (many of them have ten children) one meal in the day. A stone of potatoes is eight pence to one shilling at present; where then are this vast population to be fed from? Nothing short of the miraculous interference of heaven can save them. Hunger has driven them already to attack the flour and provision stores in Limerick, Ennis, Galway, Menreagh, Killaloe, and at several other places along the banks of the Shannon. Upon one occasion they attacked a boat taking in oats intended for the English market; this they instantly seized, and distributed its contents, six hundred sacks, in small parcels amongst the vast multitude. In every case there was no appearance of drunkenness, but there was every appearance of hunger. Yet while all this is going on, we perceive your bishops and princes, your lords and ladies squandering away thousands upon thousands in idle luxury in , that enormous den. Dare we contemplate the end?”—Dublin correspondent of the Manchester Advertiser.
These things are coming upon the inhabitants, yet they are blind and cannot see it: they appear to exult over the , and when a few fine days come (which are indeed scarce) they cry out to the saints, “where is your famines, pestilences, and judgments you have predicted;” we tell them to wait a little while and they shall see them, and then they shall know that we have told the truth. And now after all these things which I have seen, together with the toils, fatigues, labors, pains, and sufferings, which I have endured; I have never had one discouraging moment, nor felt the least dismayed; but with an unshaken confidence I have pressed my way forward, and am still determined to pursue the same path, looking forward to the recompense of reward; and these are the feelings of my brethren as far as I have knowledge; they are in good spirits and we have had a season of rejoicing together for the past few days. Since we came into this land there has been six of the church in different parts to do the business of the church; and there has not been hitherto in all our proceedings, the least discordant voice, and we feel as though God was with us indeed, and does bless us and our labors.
A short time ago I went in company with to Burnley, a large town, to visit a church. Having a desire to go down into a coal-pit; I went to the master and told him that I was from and had a desire to go down into the pit. He consented and fitted us out in colliers clothes, and then let us down the shaft to the depth of one hundred and seventy-four yards or five hundred and twenty-two feet. We then took a course and went from the shaft something more than nine hundred yards, and in this place there was about one hundred men and boys laboring, and six horses which drawed the coal from different parts of the mine to the shaft. Burnley is the place where the Danes assembled, when they conquered ; and took the men captive, and took their women to wife. These women entered into a secret combination with each other and appointing a night they slew the Danes and liberated their own husbands.
I must now close my correspondence for the present, and I desire that you would give my love to , and to your and , and to all your friends; to , , and ; and to the ; and to all the and saints in ; and especially to yourself and family. The brethren all send their love to you and the saints. Please to remember me to my dear and children. wishes to be remembered to you and all the saints. This from your friend and well wisher in the .
To Mr. Joseph Smith, Jr. [p. 863]

Footnotes

  1. 1

    With the help of Israel Barlow, Young departed Montrose, Iowa Territory, to join Kimball in Commerce on 14 September 1839. Of the first leg of his journey, Young recalled, “My health was so poor I was unable to go thirty rods to the river without assistance.” Young’s family arrived in Commerce on 17 September. Kimball later recounted their departure in more detail, recollecting that he and Young, although ill, arose in the wagon as they left and shouted a cheer to encourage their family members. (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 26; Kimball, “History,” 111.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  2. 2

    Likely Benjamin R. Bently, who resided in Nauvoo at the time. (“Obituary,” Times and Seasons, 15 Feb. 1841, 2:325.)  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  3. 3

    Duell was a member of the church living twelve miles outside of Lima, Illinois. Apparently located near a proposed railroad track, Duell’s home was described as a “Shantee on the raileroad.” (Kimball, “History,” 111–112; Turley, Reminiscences and Journal, 7.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

    Turley, Theodore. Reminiscences and Journal, Sept. 1839–July 1840. Photocopy. CHL. MS 1950.

  4. 4

    Kimball later identified this man as “Bro. Bidwell.” He was likely Robert W. Bidwell, who resided in Adams County, Illinois, where Lima is located. (Kimball, “History,” 112; Robert W. Bidwell, Affidavit, 8 Jan. 1840, Record Group 233, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, National Archives, Washington DC.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

    Record Group 233, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives / Petitions and Memorials, Resolutions of State Legislatures, and Related Documents Which Were Referred to the Committee on Judiciary during the 27th Congress. Committee on the Judiciary, Petitions and Memorials, 1813–1968. Record Group 233, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1789–2015. National Archives, Washington DC. The LDS records cited herein are housed in National Archives boxes 40 and 41 of Library of Congress boxes 139–144 in HR27A-G10.1.

  5. 5

    Laura and Abigail Pitkin were members of the church living in Quincy, Illinois. (Heber C. Kimball, Quincy, IL, to Vilate Murray Kimball, Sept. [1839], Heber C. Kimball, Collection, CHL; Thompson, Journal of Heber C. Kimball, 54–55.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. Collection, 1837–1898. CHL. MS 12476.

    Thompson, Robert B. Journal of Heber C. Kimball an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Nauvoo, IL: Robinson and Smith, 1840.

  6. 6

    On 14 January 1840, Young wrote to his wife, Mary Ann Angell Young, and assured her that he had “injoyed my self well sence I left home concidirn [considering] my helth has ben so poor.” (Brigham Young, Richmond, MA, to Mary Ann Angell Young, 14 and 16 Jan. 1840; 5 Feb. 1840, George W. Thatcher Blair, Collection, CHL.)  

    Blair, George W. Thatcher. Collection, 1837–1988. CHL.

  7. 7

    Smith, Turley, and Hedlock departed Commerce on 21 September 1839 and followed a route very similar to Young and Kimball’s. They arrived in Quincy on 24 September 1839. Turley described his sickness as the “western Chill” fever, which caused one of his legs to swell so much that his leg “contracted” and he “could not put it to the Ground.” (Turley, Reminiscences and Journal, 5–8; George A. Smith, Journal, 21 Sept. 1839.)  

    Turley, Theodore. Reminiscences and Journal, Sept. 1839–July 1840. Photocopy. CHL. MS 1950.

    Smith, George A. Autobiography, ca. 1860–1882. George Albert Smith, Papers, 1834–1877. CHL. MS 1322, box 1, fd. 2.

  8. 8

    In summer 1839, the Saints in Nauvoo and Montrose were ravaged by malaria. They generally attributed their susceptibility to the epidemic to their forced exodus from Missouri. (See, for example, John Taylor, Letter to the Editor, LDS Millennial Star, May 1841, 2:13.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

  9. 9

    Rich was in Burton, Illinois, where his in-laws resided. (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 27; Rich, Autobiography, 53–54.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

    Rich, Sarah DeArmon Pea. Autobiography and Journal, 1885–1890. Sarah DeArmon Pea Rich, Autobiography, 1884–1893. CHL.

  10. 10

    On 8 March 1840, Phebe Carter Woodruff reported that a few days earlier Wight had expressed his intention of “going to N. & S. Carolina this summer to preach.” Wight may have undertaken this journey at the time he joined with Kimball and the others. (Phebe Carter Woodruff, Montrose, Iowa Territory, to Wilford Woodruff, Ledbury, England, 8 Mar. 1840, digital scan, Wilford Woodruff, Collection, CHL.)  

    Woodruff, Wilford. Collection, 1831–1905. CHL. MS 19509.

  11. 11

    In Pittsfield, Illinois, the apostles stayed with James Allred. Kimball was simply noting that Marks, who was then living in Nauvoo, had once lived in Pittsfield. (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 27.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

  12. 12

    Kimball later related that Allred “carried us to the place where bro. Harlow Redfield lived, where we preached to a small branch of the church on Sunday [September] 29th.” Although Kimball said Silas Smith lived in another town, Smith’s son recalled that he resided in Pittsfield. Silas Smith died on 13 September 1839. (Kimball, “History,” 112; Jesse Smith, Autobiography and Journal, 7; “Obituary,” Times and Seasons, Dec. 1839, 1:32.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

    Smith, Jesse Nathaniel. Autobiography and Journal, 1855-1906. Typescript, not before 1940. CHL. MS 1489, fd. 2.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  13. 13

    Winchester, Illinois, was actually not in Morgan County but in bordering Scott County. (Kimball, “History,” 112; Peck, Traveller’s Directory for Illinois, 169–170.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

    Peck, John Mason. The Traveler’s Directory for Illinois; Containing Accurate Sketches of the State—A Particular Description of Each County, and Important Business Towns—A List of the Principal Roads, Stage and Steamboat Routes, Land Offices, Tracts of Land Unoccupied. . . . New York: J. H. Colton, 1839.

  14. 14

    Young stayed at “bro. Decker’s,” which was “a few rods” from where Kimball stayed at Murray’s home. (Kimball, “History,” 112.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  15. 15

    One of the brothers was Lorenzo Young. Although no contemporary source identifies the name of the sister, Kimball was likely referring to Fanny Young Murray, who was the wife of Roswell Murray. (Little, “Biography of Lorenzo Dow Young,” 60; “History of Brigham Young,” Deseret News [Salt Lake City], 27 Jan. 1858, 369.)  

    Little, James Amasa. “Biography of Lorenzo Dow Young.” Utah Historical Quarterly 14 (1946): 25-132.

    Deseret News. Salt Lake City. 1850–.

  16. 16

    According to Brigham Young’s history, “a Sister in the Church hired a man & buggy to carry us to Springfield, where we were kindly received by the brethren.” (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 27.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

  17. 17

    Kimball later recalled that church member and medical practitioner Libeus Coon took care of Brigham Young in Springfield. (Kimball, “History,” 112.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  18. 18

    Kimball later remembered visiting the Saints in Springfield “from house to house strengthening and comforting the brethren, and teaching them the things of the Kingdom.” Church members expressed “a great feeling of love” toward him and his companions and gave them thirty-five dollars and “a two horse wagon and harness” worth fifty-five dollars. (Kimball, “History,” 112.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  19. 19

    In a 24 October 1839 letter to his wife, Vilate Murray Kimball, Kimball provided further details of his illness. After a scant meal, he wrote, the “waggon began to fail brock [broke] down twice and the chiles [chills] came on to me again about two in the after noon, and hold me till night. then the fever hold me all night, this continued for three days I had lost my apetite not having anny thing betwixt meals to eat the third chill that I had, it seam to me as tho I could not live till night my distress was so great.” (Heber C. Kimball, Pleasant Garden, IN, to Vilate Murray Kimball, 24 Oct. 1839, photocopy, Heber C. Kimball, Correspondence, 1837–1864, CHL.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. Correspondence, 1837–1864. Private possession. Copy at CHL.

  20. 20

    Modesitt was a prominent physician and a member of the church then residing in Terre Haute, Indiana. (Kimball, “History,” 114; Woodruff, Journal, 24 Aug. 1839; Oakey, Greater Terre Haute, 149–150.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

    Oakey, C. C. Greater Terre Haute and Vigo County: Closing the First Century's History of City and County, Showing the Growth of Their People Industries and Wealth. Chicago: Lewis Publishing, 1908.

  21. 21

    On 24 October 1839, Kimball narrated this scene in a letter to his wife: “When I was put on to the bed it tock [took] the docter and his wife and Br Brigham all nite to keepe a breth of life in my body, this continued till about ten in the morning when I felt better. thare was a cold sweet [sweat] that Rolled out of me all night, which swet the deseas out of me; and I have had no chills since.” Young’s history alleged that the doctor, while inebriated, had inadvertently given Kimball morphine immediately before his fainting spell. (H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 24 Oct. 1839; Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 28; see also Kimball, “History,” 113–114.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  22. 22

    In his autobiography, Kimball remembered that Roswell Murray had declared, “We shall never see Heber again, he will die.” (Kimball, “History,” 114; see also H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 24 Oct. 1839.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  23. 23

    In his autobiography, Kimball wrote, “Bro. James Modisett took us in his father’s carriage, twenty miles, to the house of bro. Addison Pratt.” (Kimball, “History,” 114.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  24. 24

    Knight was a recent convert to the church. Kimball described him as a “verry eminet fasition [physician], a m[an] of great we[al]th.” (H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 24 Oct. 1839; Cady, Indiana Annual Register, 136.)  

    Cady, C. W. The Indiana Annual Register and Pocket Manual, Revised and Corrected for the Year 1846. . . . Indianapolis: Samuel Turner, 1846.

  25. 25

    In Pleasant Garden, Indiana, Kimball and Young stayed with Jonathan Crosby, a member of the church. They also stayed with Knight. Kimball and Young spent these three days “preaching to the few brethren, and those who wished to hear.” (H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 24 Oct. 1839; Kimball, “History,” 114.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  26. 26

    Babbitt was proselytizing in the area. Kimball later wrote, “Bro. Babbitt took us in his buggy twelve miles, to the house of bro. Scott; they were very glad to see us, and we tarried with them through the night.” (H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 24 Oct. 1839; Kimball, “History,” 114.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  27. 27

    According to Kimball’s autobiography, “Bro Scott sent his little son John, who carried us to Belleville.” Scott had intended to transport the apostles to Indianapolis. (Kimball, “History,” 114; Heber C. Kimball, Kirtland, OH, to Vilate Murray Kimball, Commerce, IL, 16 Nov. 1839, photocopy, Heber C. Kimball, Letters, 1839–1854, CHL.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

    Kimball, Heber C. Letters, 1839–1854. Photocopy. CHL.

  28. 28

    Kimball later recalled that “the landlord rose up very early” and gathered a number of neighbors into the hotel to hear the missionaries preach, that the neighbors “were very anxious” for the missionaries to “tarry and preach in the place,” and that the missionaries “left the Landlord in tears.” (Kimball, “History,” 114.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  29. 29

    Kimball and Young traveled by stagecoach from Belleville, Indiana, to Cleveland, going through Indianapolis and Richmond, Indiana; and Dayton, Columbus, and Wooster, Ohio. (Kimball, “History,” 114–115.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  30. 30

    Kimball recalled that when Hedlock, Murray, George A. Smith, and Turley left Kimball and Young in Terre Haute, Kimball told them, “Go ahead, for bro. Brigham and I will reach Kirtland, before you will.” In a 16 November 1839 letter he wrote to his wife, Vilate, Kimball stated, “Agreeable to the words that I told them when they left me sick I arrived on Kirtland flats first.” Young wrote that when the other missionaries left for Kirtland, “the horses had pretty well given out— we gave them what money we had except 5 dollars & told them to take good care of the Team & make all possible speed, if they did not we would be in Kirtland before them.” (Kimball, “History,” 114; H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 16 Nov. 1839; Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 28.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

    Kimball, Heber C. Letters, 1839–1854. Photocopy. CHL.

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

  31. 31

    Taylor left Commerce with Wilford Woodruff on 8 August 1839 and was sick for much of their journey. On 2 September 1839, Woodruff left Taylor in Germantown, Indiana, under the care of an unnamed family. After five weeks, Taylor traveled to Dayton, where he again fell ill and remained three weeks at a tavern until Hedlock, George A. Smith, and Turley discovered him and helped him travel to Kirtland. (Woodruff, Journal, 2 Sept. 1839; Turley, Reminiscences and Journal, 10; Kimball, “History,” 115.)  

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

    Turley, Theodore. Reminiscences and Journal, Sept. 1839–July 1840. Photocopy. CHL. MS 1950.

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  32. 32

    JS fled Kirtland in 1838 in the face of growing opposition from dissenters, including several disillusioned church leaders. Dissent within the Kirtland community remained an ongoing concern. (Minutes, 5–6 Sept. 1840; Letter to Oliver Granger, between ca. 22 and ca. 28 July 1840; Kimball, “History,” 115.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  33. 33

    Kimball later recalled, “I made my home at Dean Gould’s, in the house of Ira Bond. I had the chills and fever for two days, and received the best of attention from Loisa Gould, who was the daughter of John Young; also from bro. Dean Gould and Ira Bond’s families: they were all very kind to me, and made me as comfortable as they could. I staid with them most of the time I was in Kirtland.” (Kimball, “History,” 116.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  34. 34

    These sentiments were probably expressed to Kimball during a confrontation on 10 November 1839. Following Kimball’s Sabbath sermon in the Kirtland House of the Lord, in which he compared the dissenters “to a parcel of old earthen pots that were cracked in burning,” several men followed him back to Ira Bond’s residence. “Martin Harris, Cyrus Smalling and others came in, and attacked me on what I had been saying, asking me, who I referred to in my comparisons! says I to no one in particular, but to any one that the coat fits. I was so sick, that I referred them to bro. Hedlock, who came in at that moment, to talk with, as I was laying in my bed having a chill and not able to talk. John Moreton and others declared I never should preach in the house again: some of the people tried to make me angry, so as to quarrel with me, but they failed.” (Kimball, “History,” 115.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. “History of Heber Chase Kimball by His Own Dictation,” ca. 1842–1856. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box 2.

  35. 35

    In the nineteenth century, the phrase “to take a car” meant to travel by railroad. (See, for example, “Journey to Our State Convention,” Universalist Union, 20 July 1844, 9:564; and Tourist; or, Pocket Manual for Travellers, 7, 97.)  

    Universalist Union. New York City, 1835–1847; Philadelphia, 1835–1837; Albany, 1835–1837; Troy, NY, 1835–1837; Hartford, CT, 1835–1837; Baltimore, 1837.

    The Tourist or Pocket Manual for Travellers on the Hudson River, the Western Canal and Stage Road to Niagara Falls Down Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence to Montreal and Quebec. . . . 3rd ed. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1834.

  36. 36

    Kimball stopped in Byron, New York, intending to visit his sister Eliza Kimball Hall and her husband, Harvey Hall. When he learned that they had recently relocated to Rochester, New York, he stayed the night with William Lewis, another friend of the Kimball family. He traveled to his sister’s home the next day. (Heber C. Kimball, Victor, NY, to Vilate Murray Kimball, Commerce, IL, 27 Dec. 1839, typescript, Heber C. Kimball Family Organization, Compilation of Heber C. Kimball Correspondence, 1983, CHL.)  

    Heber C. Kimball Family Organization. Compilation of Heber C. Kimball Correspondence, 1983. Unpublished typescript. CHL.

  37. 37

    Thayer an early member of the church, resided in Brighton, New York, approximately five miles southeast of Rochester. (1840 U.S. Census, Brighton, Monroe Co., NY, 57.)  

    Census (U.S.) / U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population Schedules. Microfilm. FHL.

  38. 38

    JS stated that he removed the gold plates from which he translated the Book of Mormon from a hill in Manchester Township, New York. (See JS History, vol. A-1, 7–8; and Oliver Cowdery, “Letter VII,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, July 1835, 1:158.)  

    Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate. Kirtland, OH. Oct. 1834–Sept. 1837.

  39. 39

    On 1 January 1840, Kimball baptized William and Mary Murray. (H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 27 Dec. 1839; see also Brigham Young, New York City, NY, to Mary Ann Angell Young, Commerce, IL, 14 and 29 Feb. 1840; 5 and 7 Mar. 1840, George W. Thatcher Blair, Collection, CHL.)  

    Heber C. Kimball Family Organization. Compilation of Heber C. Kimball Correspondence, 1983. Unpublished typescript. CHL.

    Blair, George W. Thatcher. Collection, 1837–1988. CHL.

  40. 40

    The North River was an alternate name for the Hudson River. (See, for example, Morrison, Morrison’s North River Traveller’s Companion [1831].)  

    Morrison, Thomas. Morrison’s North River Traveller’s Companion: Containing a Map of the Hudson or North River, with a Description of the Adjoining Country. . . . Philadelphia: By the author, [1831]. Digital image available at the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library, www.leventhalmap.org/id/18281.

  41. 41

    Kimball owed an additional twenty-four cents at this point in his journey. (Heber C. Kimball, New York, to Vilate Murray Kimball, Commerce, IL, 19 Feb. 1840, typescript, Heber C. Kimball Family Organization, Compilation of Heber C. Kimball Correspondence, 1983, CHL.)  

    Heber C. Kimball Family Organization. Compilation of Heber C. Kimball Correspondence, 1983. Unpublished typescript. CHL.

  42. 42

    On 29 August 1839, Pratt left Nauvoo in company with his wife, Mary Ann Frost Pratt; his three children; Orson Pratt; and Hiram Clark. Parley P. Pratt and his family arrived in New York around October 1839. ([Parley P. Pratt], “Sketches of Travels in America, and Voyage to England,” LDS Millennial Star, July 1840, 1:49–50.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

  43. 43

    Young arrived in New York City on 31 January 1840, and Orson Pratt arrived in New York City around 1 January 1840. On 16 February, Kimball found the other missionaries at Parley P. Pratt’s residence located at “No. 58, Mott Street,” where they had boarded since their arrival in the city. (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 26, 34; Orson Pratt to Sarah Marinda Bates Pratt, 6 Jan. 1840, in Times and Seasons, Feb. 1840, 1:61; B. Young to M. Young, 14 and 29 Feb. 1840; 5 and 7 Mar. 1840; H. Kimball to V. Kimball, 19 Feb. 1840.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

    Blair, George W. Thatcher. Collection, 1837–1988. CHL.

    Heber C. Kimball Family Organization. Compilation of Heber C. Kimball Correspondence, 1983. Unpublished typescript. CHL.

  44. 44

    In a 5 March 1840 letter to his wife, Kimball wrote, “The people are inquiring the way to Heaven. thare is cols [calls] on alls hands [to] come and preach to us.” On 22 November 1839, Parley P. Pratt similarly commented that the Columbian Hall in New York City could hold around one thousand people and that the church meetings there were “well filled with attentive hearers.” (Heber C. Kimball, New York City, NY, to Vilate Murray Kimball, 5 Mar. 1840, photocopy, Heber C. Kimball, Correspondence, 1837–1864, CHL; Letter from Parley P. Pratt, 22 Nov. 1839.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. Correspondence, 1837–1864. Private possession. Copy at CHL.

  45. 45

    The Patrick Henry was a packet ship built in New York City in 1839. In 1840 it sailed under the command of Joseph C. Delano. The missionaries “paid $18.00 each for a steerage passage furnished our own provisions and bedding— paid the cook $1.00 each for cooking.” (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 35; Sonne, Ships, Saints, and Mariners, 165.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

    Sonne, Conway B. Ships, Saints, and Mariners: A Maritime Encyclopedia of Mormon Migration, 1830–1890. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1987.

  46. 46

    Brigham Young’s history noted that “a large number of Saints came down to the wharf to bid us farewell, when we got into the small boat to go out to the ship, the brethren sang, ‘The gallant ship is under way’ we joined them as long as we could hear.” (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 36.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

  47. 47

    Parley P. Pratt described these storms in a letter to his wife, Mary Ann: “It soon came on a heavy gale of wind, mingled with storm, which drove us perhaps ten miles per hour with out having up any sail. this lasted two or 3 days, and the mate said he had not seen such a gale in 13 years. the sea Looked like mountains and vallies. sometimes the ship would be on the top of a wave as high as a three story building, and the next moment it would plunge into a yawning gulf, where the water would be perhaps thirty feet higher than the vessel on every side and Every few minits a mountain wave would dash over the deck and drench the sailors and Every thing in sea water.” (Parley P. Pratt, Liverpool, England, to Mary Ann Frost Pratt, New York City, NY, 6 Apr. 1840, Parley P. Pratt, Papers, CHL; see also George A. Smith, Burslem, England, to C. C. Waller, 6 June 1840, in C. C. Waller, Ohio City, OH, to John Smith, Commerce, IL, 28 July 1840, John Smith, Papers, CHL; and Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 36.)  

    Pratt, Parley P. Papers, 1837–1844. CHL.

    Smith, John. Papers, 1833–1854. CHL.

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

  48. 48

    The apostles boarded at a “Mrs Beals, No 8 Union Street.” (P. Pratt to M. Pratt, 6 Apr. 1840.)  

    Pratt, Parley P. Papers, 1837–1844. CHL.

  49. 49

    John Taylor and Theodore Turley, “being short of means,” separated in Auburn, New York, from the larger group of traveling missionaries on 29 November 1839, the day after Kimball left to visit his friends in Byron. Taylor, Turley, and Woodruff departed from New York aboard the Oxford on 19 December 1839. The three missionaries arrived in Liverpool on 11 January 1840. After briefly traveling to Preston, England, to visit relatives, Taylor began to labor in Liverpool on 22 January 1840. The branch in Liverpool numbered “about thirty Saints” in April 1840. (Historian’s Office, Brigham Young History Drafts, 32; Turley, Reminiscences and Journal, [15]; Woodruff, Journal, 18–19 Dec. 1839 and 11 Jan. 1840; John Taylor, Liverpool, England, to Leonora Cannon Taylor, 30 Jan. 1840, John Taylor, Collection, CHL; Richards, Journal, 13 Jan. 1840.)  

    Historian’s Office. Brigham Young History Drafts, 1856–1858. CHL. CR 100 475, box 1, fd. 5.

    Turley, Theodore. Reminiscences and Journal, Sept. 1839–July 1840. Photocopy. CHL. MS 1950.

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

  50. 50

    Parley P. Pratt stayed behind with Taylor in Liverpool. (Clayton, Diary, 9 Apr. 1840; Heber C. Kimball and Joseph Fielding, Clitheroe, England, 6 May 1840, Letter to the Editor, Times and Seasons, July 1840, 1:138.)  

    Clayton, William. Diary, Jan.–Nov. 1846. CHL.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  51. 51

    These three elders had presided over the church in England since Kimball completed an earlier mission there in 1838. (JS History, vol. B-1, 786; Thompson, Journal of Heber C. Kimball, 55.)  

    Thompson, Robert B. Journal of Heber C. Kimball an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Nauvoo, IL: Robinson and Smith, 1840.

  52. 52

    Fielding wrote in his journal that the reunion “was indeed a time of Rejoicing, yet they look thin & weather beaten. Bro. Kimball is very thin, but they are in good Spirits, and the Spirits of the Saints are greatly revived by their coming.” (Fielding, Journal, 9 Apr. 1840, 7.)  

    Fielding, Joseph. Journals, 1837–1859. CHL. MS 1567.

  53. 53

    Three days after arriving in Preston, the apostles held a meeting with five or six hundred in attendance, which Kimball described as “something like the day of Penticost, for there were some from various places, from a distance of 20 to 60 miles.” (Heber C. Kimball and Joseph Fielding, Clitheroe, England, 6 May 1840, Letter to the Editor, Times and Seasons, July 1840, 1:138.)  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  54. 54

    Kimball departed from his earlier mission to England on 20 April 1838. (Thompson, Journal of Heber C. Kimball, 41.)  

    Thompson, Robert B. Journal of Heber C. Kimball an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Nauvoo, IL: Robinson and Smith, 1840.

  55. 55

    According to one report, between eight and nine hundred individuals had been baptized since Kimball and Hyde departed in April 1838. (“From England,” Times and Seasons, June 1840, 1:119.)  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  56. 56

    During this 14 April 1840 council, “Brigham Young was unanimously chosen as the standing president of the Twelve,” and John Taylor was appointed the quorum’s secretary. (Woodruff, Journal, 14 Apr. 1840.)  

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  57. 57

    A July 1838 revelation appointed Willard Richards as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. (Revelation, 8 July 1838–A [D&C 118:6].)  

  58. 58

    The Cockpit, originally constructed for cock fighting, was a temperance hall by the early 1830s. The missionaries had used the arena for public sermons since September 1837. They paid “seven shillings sterling per week for the use of it, and two shillings per week for the lighting, it being beautifully lit up with gas.” (Fishwick, History of the Parish of Preston, 407; Winskill, Temperance Movement and Its Workers, 88; Fielding, Journal, Sept. 1837, 30; Thompson, Journal of Heber C. Kimball, 25–26; see also Walmsley, Reminiscences of the Preston Cockpit and the Old Teetotallers, 1–3.)  

    Fishwick, Henry. The History of the Parish of Preston in Amounderness in the County of Lancaster. Rochdale, England: Aldine Press, 1900.

    Winskill, P. T. The Temperance Movement and Its Workers: A Record of Social, Moral, Religious, and Political Progress. Vol. 1. London: Blackie and Son, 1892.

    Fielding, Joseph. Journals, 1837–1859. CHL. MS 1567.

    Thompson, Robert B. Journal of Heber C. Kimball an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Nauvoo, IL: Robinson and Smith, 1840.

    Walmsley, Thomas. Reminiscences of the Preston Cockpit and the Old Teetotallers. Preston, England: Guardian Printing Works, 1892.

  59. 59

    See [Parley P. Pratt], “At a General Conference,” LDS Millennial Star, May 1840, 1:20–21.  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

  60. 60

    See Heber C. Kimball, Manchester, England, to Vilate Murray Kimball, Commerce, IL, 9 July 1840, Heber C. Kimball, Collection, CHL. On 30 June 1840, Kimball and Richards traveled from Preston to Manchester in preparation for the 6 July 1840 conference. (Richards, Journal, 30 June 1840.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. Collection, 1837–1898. CHL. MS 12476.

    Richards, Franklin D. Journals, 1844–1899. Richards Family Collection, 1837–1961. CHL. MS 1215, boxes 1–5.

  61. 61

    The “late persecution” referred to the Saints’ expulsion from Missouri in 1838 and 1839. Parley P. Pratt used the phrase in the title of a pamphlet published in 1839. (See Parley P. Pratt, History of the Late Persecution Inflicted by the State of Missouri upon the Mormons [Detroit: Dawson and Bates, 1839].)  

  62. 62

    Young likewise described the British Saints as “very anxous to emigrate.” Woodruff reported that “most all the Saints” in Great Britain developed this desire “without my preaching it.” (Letter from Brigham Young, 7 May 1840; Wilford Woodruff, Ledbury, England, to Willard Richards, Preston, England, 25 Mar. 1840, Willard Richards, Journals and Papers, CHL.)  

    Richards, Willard. Journals and Papers, 1821–1854. CHL.

  63. 63

    Missionaries frequently recorded that the British Saints spoke in tongues, prophesied, and experienced dreams, visions, and other gifts of the Spirit. On 29 June, Kimball was present for a meeting in which “about 15 Spake with toungs and others had the Interpitation of tongues, and menny had the gift of Prophesy and declared menny good things.” (Heber C. Kimball, Manchester, England, to Elisebeth Parkenson, 2 July 1840, CHL.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. Letter, Manchester, England, to Elisebeth Parkenson, 2 July 1840. CHL.

  64. 64

    In April 1840, the apostles were concerned about accommodating the number of attendees they foresaw coming to the conference in Manchester. Parley P. Pratt wrote, “Indeed the largest place in the town would be to[o] small if the public could have general notice.” On 17 June 1840, shortly after leasing the Carpenter’s Hall, Young wrote that the building was “a large fine place for meetings it will hold about 2000 people.” John Needham, a British convert, described the building as “a large commodious place with a gallery at each end.” ([Parley P. Pratt], “At a General Conference,” LDS Millennial Star, May 1840, 1:20–21; Brigham Young, Manchester, England, to Willard Richards, Ledbury, England, 17 June 1840, Willard Richards, Journals and Papers, CHL; Needham, Autobiography and Journal, 5 July 1840, 24.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

    Richards, Willard. Journals and Papers, 1821–1854. CHL.

    Needham, John. Autobiography and Journal, 1840–1842. CHL.

  65. 65

    See “Minutes of the General Conference,” LDS Millennial Star, July 1840, 1:67–69.  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

  66. 66

    Parley P. Pratt. (“Minutes of the General Conference,” LDS Millennial Star, July 1840, 1:67.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

  67. 67

    Young had been actively involved with publishing since shortly after his arrival in England. On 16 April 1840, Young, Pratt, and Taylor were appointed to select hymns for a new hymnbook. Since the hymnbook was completed before the 6 July 1840 conference, the apostles’ publishing efforts at this time were primarily focused on the Book of Mormon and the new church newspaper in England, the Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Young had already made headway on the printing of the Book of Mormon, for which he, Pratt, and Kimball signed a contract on 17 June 1840. By 7 July 1840, they had signed another contract for “paper sufficient to Print 5,000 copies of the Book of Mormon.” (“Minutes of the General Conference,” LDS Millennial Star, July 1840, 1:69; B. Young to W. Richards, 17 June 1840; Woodruff, Journal, 16 Apr. and 7 July 1840.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

    Richards, Willard. Journals and Papers, 1821–1854. CHL.

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  68. 68

    Because he expected to stay in England for five to ten years while serving as editor of the LDS Millennial Star, Pratt had urged his wife, Mary Ann, to settle their affairs in New York and begin the voyage to England at the earliest opportunity. On 6 July 1840, Pratt received a letter from his family alerting him “that they were dangerously ill of scarlet fever.” The next day, the apostles granted Pratt permission to return to New York and escort his family to England. Pratt departed in July and returned in October. (Parley P. Pratt, Liverpool, England, to Mary Ann Frost Pratt, New York City, NY, 6 Apr. 1840, Parley P. Pratt, Papers, CHL; Pratt, Autobiography, 342–343; Woodruff, Journal, 7 July 1840.)  

    Pratt, Parley P. Papers, 1837–1844. CHL.

    Pratt, Parley P. The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Embracing His Life, Ministry and Travels, with Extracts, in Prose and Verse, from His Miscellaneous Writings. Edited by Parley P. Pratt Jr. New York: Russell Brothers, 1874.

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  69. 69

    Richards’s wife, Jennetta Richards Richards, then residing near Preston, had been ill. John Needham noted that she was unable to walk when he saw her before the 6 July 1840 conference. After Willard asked Young’s advice on how to best care for her, Young encouraged Willard on 17 June to visit his wife. (Needham, Autobiography and Journal, 6 July 1840, 24; Willard Richards, Dymock, England, to Brigham Young, Manchester, England, 15 June 1840, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL; B. Young to W. Richards, 17 June 1840.)  

    Needham, John. Autobiography and Journal, 1840–1842. CHL.

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

    Richards, Willard. Journals and Papers, 1821–1854. CHL.

  70. 70

    Pratt arrived in Scotland toward the end of May. Reuben Hedlock was already in Scotland, having organized the Bridge of Weir branch on 6 June 1840. (Orson Pratt, Manchester, England, 16 Apr. 1841, Letter to the Editor, LDS Millennial Star, May 1841, 2:11; Bridge of Weir Branch, British Mission, Minutes, 25 June 1840.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

    Bridge of Weir Branch, British Mission. Minutes, 25 June 1840. CHL.

  71. 71

    Wright and Mulliner arrived in Scotland on 20 December 1839. (Wright, Journal, 20 Dec. 1839; see also Alexander Wright to Willard Richards, Preston, England, 6 Apr. 1840, Willard Richards, Journals and Papers, CHL.)  

    Wright, Alexander. Journal, 1839–1843. Alexander Wright, Papers, 1838–1876. CHL.

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

  72. 72

    On 7 July 1840, members of the Twelve voted that Turley would lead a group of English Saints immigrating to Nauvoo. (Woodruff, Journal, 7 July 1840.)  

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  73. 73

    On 27 May 1840, Kimball wrote of this plan to his wife: “Thare is sevrel of the Churches [congregations] here are going to gow up next Spring to Zion in Churches for the Rich love the poor so well they cant leave them behind, this is a Celestial Spirrit, I would to God that all the Saints had it. The saints have began to gether to Zion from this land and it will never Stop till the Salt is dreaned out of all nations, some have gon and others are Redy, will start next tuesday thare is about forty of them.” (Heber C. Kimball, Manchester, England, to Vilate Murray Kimball, Commerce, IL, 27 May 1840, CHL.)  

    Kimball, Heber C. Letter, Manchester, England, to Vilate Murray Kimball, Commerce, IL, 27 May 1840. CHL.

  74. 74

    This was probably James McGuffie, who was ordained an elder in Liverpool and later traveled to Ireland with John Taylor, arriving on 27 July 1840. (John Taylor, Letter to the Editor, LDS Millennial Star, May 1841, 2:15.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

  75. 75

    See William Donaldson, Chatham, England, to Parley P. Pratt, Manchester, England, 5 July 1840, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL. This elder was William Donaldson. (“News from the Elders,” Times and Seasons, 1 Dec. 1840, 2:229.)  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  76. 76

    Great Britain was in the midst of a depression. Slums began forming after poor British citizens who had previously been involved in agriculture moved into cities in order to work in factories or mines. Several missionaries left accounts describing the poor in England. For example, Wilford Woodruff observed, “Preston has a population of about 60,000 the streets were crouded with the poor both male & female going to & from the factories with their wodden or Clogg Shoes on which makes a great ratling over the pavement the poor are in as great Bondage as the children of Israel in Egypt.” (Woodruff, Journal, 14 Jan. 1840.)  

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  77. 77

    See Isaiah 11:9.  

  78. 78

    See Matthew 24:6; and Revelation, ca. 7 Mar. 1831 [D&C 45:26].  

  79. 79

    See Revelation, 16–17 Dec. 1833 [D&C 101:89].  

  80. 80

    The church’s effort in 1839–1840 to obtain redress for the expulsion of church members from Missouri did not succeed. President Martin Van Buren denied JS’s request for help in December 1839, and in February 1840 the United States Senate rejected considering the memorial for redress. (Letter to Hyrum Smith and Nauvoo High Council, 5 Dec. 1839; Letter from Elias Higbee, 26 Feb. 1840.)  

  81. 81

    “Distress of the People of Ireland,” Northern Star, and Leeds General Advertiser, 20 June 1840, 8.  

    Northern Star, and Leeds General Advertiser. Leeds, England. 1837–1852.

  82. 82

    In addition to the conferences at Preston and Manchester discussed in this letter, conferences were held in Worcestershire on 14 June 1840, in Herefordshire on 21 June 1840, and in Staffordshire on 29 June 1840. (Woodruff, Journal, 14, 21, and 29 June 1840.)  

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  83. 83

    This visit occurred on 22 June 1840. (Fielding, Journal, 22 June 1840, 28–30.)  

    Fielding, Joseph. Journals, 1837–1859. CHL. MS 1567.

  84. 84

    Unbeknownst to the missionaries in England, Partridge had died of malaria on 27 May 1840. (“Obituary,” Times and Seasons, June 1840, 1:127–128.)  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  85. 85

    Heber and Vilate Murray Kimball had four living children, aged fourteen years old to eleven months: William Henry Kimball, Helen Mar Kimball, Heber Parley Kimball, and David Patten Kimball. (Kimball, Heber C. Kimball, 311.)  

    Kimball, Stanley B. Heber C. Kimball: Mormon Patriarch and Pioneer. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981.