Part 3: September–October 1845

In early May 1845 conveyed to , who was presiding in the eastern , an upbeat assessment of the Latter-day Saints’ present situation. “All is peace in Zion,” Young wrote. “We never had better times, nor better prospects, we do not anticipate any trouble at court, union & peace in .” Young’s words to the church in his Sunday sermon the same day he sent the letter painted a similar picture: “We are blest, the L[or]d. smiles upon us . . . our prospects is better & brighter now than ever they have been since this was a people.” But he also urged those in Nauvoo to live faithfully—and to be prepared: “Our enemies if they tho[ugh]t. we were not prepared, wo[ul]d. be upon us.” Immediately after the Council of Fifty reconvened on 9 September 1845, Young and other council members learned that these preparations would be tested as violence erupted against Mormons in areas outside Nauvoo. The Council of Fifty’s three meetings in September and October 1845 focused on advancing the council’s central responsibility to find a place of safety for the Saints.
’s optimism in the spring reflected in part progress on the and the , both structures that were mandated in a JS revelation in 1841 and that Young and other church leaders believed must be finished before the Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo. In May the Saints reached a milestone with the completion of stonework for the temple, meaning that prospects were good for ordinance work later in the year. A capstone ceremony on 24 May memorialized the achievement. To minimize the risk of arrest of Young and others who had kept largely out of sight, no public announcement was made, but word quietly spread and “great numbers” gathered for the 6:00 a.m. ceremony. After prayer Young slid the capstone into place, then “led off with waiving his hat and shouting Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna, Amen Amen, Amen.” Following music from the band, Young gave a “little speech”: “The last stone is laid upon the Temple and I pray the Almighty in the name of Jesus to defend us in this place and sustain us untill the Temple is finished.” On 18 August the first brick was placed on the Nauvoo House. Latter-day Saints continued to prioritize the building of both structures over the summer months. On 28 August church leaders informed a missionary that the temple was nearly completed and that “in a few weeks we shall commence giving the endowment.” They also reported that the exterior of the Nauvoo House was expected to be completed in about six weeks.
On 4 May, the same day that gave his positive assessment of prospects for the Saints in , , a member of both the Quorum of the Twelve and the Council of Fifty, returned from his many months of residence in the eastern to be ordained as patriarch to the church. Following the murders of his brothers Joseph and , Smith at first had affirmed that the Twelve “must act in Joseph[’s] place on Earth as presiding officers & govern the Church in all things temporaley & Spiritualy.” By the time of Smith’s return to Nauvoo, however, the Twelve had received reports that he had caused difficulties in the eastern branches of the church, partly because of his involvement in unauthorized plural marriages. Reports also circulated that Smith had come out in opposition to the Twelve. Nevertheless, on 24 May 1845 Young ordained him as patriarch.
Tension between and other members of the Twelve increased during summer 1845. A month after the ordination, reported that Smith “seems to think he ought to be president of the church, & since he was ordained a Patriarch to the whole church he has endeavored to get up an influence among the saints to persuade them that the office of Patriarch necessarily makes him president.” On 17 August 1845 Smith openly discussed plural marriage and “intimated in strong terms” that the other apostles, especially Young and , “were practising such things in secret but he was not afraid to do it openly.” Despite all this, the Twelve were about to publish a notice that Smith would be in the East giving patriarchal blessings when returned to following his time in the eastern states. After Pratt provided details of harm done in the eastern branches by Smith, the apostles withdrew their support from Smith traveling there again to give blessings. At the church conference on 6 October 1845, Pratt objected to Smith being sustained as one of the Twelve because he “aspires to uproot and undermine the legal Presidency of the church, that he may occupy the place himself.” After writing a pamphlet critical of the Twelve, Smith was excommunicated on 19 October.
Among the other concerns of the Council of Fifty in May 1845 was that the upcoming trial of the men accused of murdering JS would lead to renewed violence in the region. Governor , fearing that anti-Mormons would interfere with the trial, authorized Sheriff , the brigadier general over the local militia, to call up his “whole Brigade including the Mormons” as needed to defend the court and the witnesses. Responding to rumors that the Mormons intended to attack during the trial, the Council of Fifty agreed to send only those who had business at court to Carthage. On 21 May, the day the trial opened, and even denied the urgent request of prosecuting attorney for church leaders to submit a list of witnesses for the trial, declaring that they “wanted nothing to do with it,” as the trial was “between the and the prisoners or offenders,” not “the Mormons & anti Mormons.” In addition to questioning the impartiality of the court, they expressed their fear that if they were “to enlist in attempting to bring the murderers to justice, no matter how legal in our movements, it would be construed into a persecution.” Regardless of the result of the trial, they pledged to maintain peace. In truth, church leaders held out little hope for a successful prosecution. On 26 May, wrote to that “there is every reason to suppose they [the murderers] will be acquitted, for it would be a new thing under the sun for Satans Kingdom to bring to justice a man who has murdered a prophet of God.” On 30 May the defendants were found not guilty and the trial concluded peacefully.
The Council of Fifty’s project to unite the Indians and find a new home in the West also moved forward during summer 1845. On 10 May, the same day as the final meeting of the council before the summer break, church leaders signed the letters prepared by the council for the governors of the , as well as a letter addressed to President James K. Polk, asking for the recipients’ views on “what is called the Great Western Measure, of colonizing the Latter Day Saints in , the North western Territory, or some location, remote from the states.” A month earlier, in their 11 April 1845 session, the council had assigned , , and to accompany , an Oneida Indian, to the expected pan-Indian council in Indian Territory. On 9 May the missionaries visited a group of Stockbridge Indians led by Thomas T. Hendrick near . Hendrick, likely a relative of Dana, had been visited as early as 1840 by Dunham when he first accompanied Dana to Indian Territory. The missionaries remained among the Stockbridge for ten days before continuing south to attend the Indian council. Hendrick wrote a letter of recommendation for the party to an acquaintance among the Cherokee, noting that the men were “true friends to the Indian Nations” and that “their mission to you, is of great benefit to you, and all nations, both temperally and Spiritually.”
The missionaries arrived at Fort Gibson in Cherokee territory on 31 May only to learn the council they had hoped to attend had taken place earlier in Creek territory and that a follow-up council was not expected for another year. While and remained in Indian Territory, and returned to , arriving on 18 June with reports about visiting a number of tribes and their assessment that “the tribes are endeavouring to unite and a number of tribes are already united.” Nevertheless, the men had little success in the region. Phineas Young later recalled the difficulties they faced on their mission and stated that “when we had got among them, we found that there was not an Indian who ever heard of the word Mormon.” Not until late summer did discussion of the West again become a central priority for church leaders. In the meantime, Latter-day Saints prepared by expanding the amount of land under cultivation and by equipping the and the arsenal to store what they expected to be an unprecedented harvest.
The return of to by 2 August prompted a series of meetings involving , the Twelve, and others that intensified discussions about the West and that provide essential background for understanding the Council of Fifty’s deliberations after it reconvened in early September. The council had formally censured Emmett in February 1845 for leading an emigrant group away from the city without authorization. His company remained encamped at Fort Vermillion on the in present-day South Dakota. Meetings were held in relation to Emmett’s return and to determine his status in the church on 2, 4, and 7 August. Because the Quorum of the Twelve played a central role in the Council of Fifty, and because meetings convened by the Twelve often included others in addition to the apostles, it is unclear if these meetings were considered ad hoc meetings to advance the work of the Council of Fifty or if they were considered Quorum of the Twelve business more narrowly. The usual scribe for council business, , was dealing with a sore finger and could “not write much” during these first few weeks of August. Minutes of these meetings with Emmett were thus kept by other scribes, such as and , and remained separate from Clayton’s council minutes.
The 2 August meeting among , , and others occurred at ’s office. Emmett explained that the letters had delivered to him the previous spring were “frie[n]dly & good . . . & had weght [weighed] on his mind,” causing him to return to . Speaking for himself and those he led, Emmett said, “Tis my desire & I know it is their desire to hold on with the church.” He further explained that his company had halted where it had at the request of a Sioux chief and described many of the resources in the area his company occupied. Young responded that “if Emmet & his company would take our council in all things we would receive him into fellowship— & save them[.] if not [we] would not fellowship [them].” When Emmett protested that he believed he and his company could be in fellowship even if they were separated from the body of Saints, Young made clear that it was Emmett’s defiance of church authority that was at issue, telling him “he would cut off every man who followed him if they did not obey coulcil [council]— & they should be turned over to the buffitings of satan.”
Two days later, several members of the Quorum of the Twelve convened to discuss ’s actions and determine his fate. Emmett explained that he had not intended to alienate himself from the church: “I did not go bec[ause] I had not the same faith as the church— but I went to get rid of the surrounding Gentile world . . . if I co[ul]d. have had the fellowship of the church I wo[ul]d. have staid there.” To convince the skeptical assembly, Emmett testified, “I respect the auth[orit]y. of the church— as from heaven I believe God sent an angel & ord[aine]d. Joseph the Prophet and that Josh. ordd. others, & to that authy. I bow to, when nothing else will— I believe that authy. to be in this church & no where else.”
While may have been softened by ’s apparent penitence, others, such as , responded with skepticism. Taylor asserted that Emmett “knew that he was going contrary to counsel” and “knew he was doing wrong.” Nevertheless, Young proposed that Emmett, who had in his absence been disfellowshipped from the church on 3 September 1844 and dropped from the Council of Fifty on 4 February 1845, be restored to his place in the church after agreeing to abide by the decisions of the authorities of the church. Young instructed to rebaptize Emmett immediately and determined to send some men back with Emmett to his company to deliver the instructions of church leaders.
At nearly the same time returned with a favorable report of his company’s relations with the Sioux, two American Indians from , Joseph Herring and his nephew Moses Otis, visited . recorded that the two Mohawks stopped at his office on 22 July on their way from to southwestern to visit friends. After less than two weeks in Nauvoo, both men were baptized by on 3 August and confirmed by him and other members of the Twelve.
immediately saw the potential of these two converts to serve as missionaries and envoys to the Indians whom Herring and Otis had been intending to visit in the West. He assigned council members and to leave the next day with them on a mission. Young personally “furnished these Lamanites bro’s with guns clothing and money to bear their Expenses.” The four men—Herring, Otis, Spencer, and Shumway—departed the afternoon of 4 August. On 1 September 1845 Spencer and Shumway returned carrying with them not only a report of their own mission to the American Indians but also that of . When the council reconvened on 9 September, Spencer reported on his mission and on Dana’s accomplishments.
In late August another series of meetings addressed the vital council objective of finding a new home for the Latter-day Saints. Although there are no extant minutes for these sessions, several diaries mention them. Discussion on 14 August appears to have set the stage for what followed. As church leaders assembled that afternoon for prayer, they “had conversation on various subjects particularly about removing to a healthy climate after we have done the work appointed us in ,” likely meaning the completion of the and the . A council convened on 27 August in part to hear the report of . To Pratt’s report that the eastern branches were “weak in men & means & growing weaker,” “said it is all good” and began talking about the prospects of becoming an independent country with a “regular governor” sometime the following year. On 28 August, recorded in his journal another meeting of Young and other church leaders who “voted to select three thousand men who are able to bear arms to prepare this winter to start to California next spring with their families.” added that they were to “begin preparing immediately.” Three days later, church leaders again discussed “the expedition,” likely labeling it this way to disguise the intended location. According to Clayton, “The Twelve seem to think it important that they should go with the company to select a location and plant the standard. They would leave their families here and return when they had succeeded in finding a place.” Richards recorded a “vote” that Young be the next governor of California and the vice governor.
Although the diary entries lack details, by 28 August and other church leaders had identified a specific area of the immense region of as the location of their future home. In a letter that day, church leaders instructed , a missionary in the , to direct any possible emigrants to the mouth of the Columbia River in , to San Francisco, or to Monterey Bay in Alta California. From there they could make their way inland to the main settlement of the Saints, which would be located “in the neighborhood of Lake Tampanagos as that is represented as a most delightful district and [there are] no settlement[s] near there.” Lake Tampanagos was the anglicized name Zebulon Pike gave to the large body of water described by the Domínguez-Escalante expedition of 1776. Believing the Great Salt Lake to be an appendage of Utah Lake, the expedition christened both as Lake Timpanogó or Laguna de los Timpanogos, after the American Indians living in the region. In the September meetings of the Council of Fifty, Young stated that his interest in this region was generated by the favorable report of fur traders relayed by . In addition, Captain ’s report on his 1843–1844 exploration of Oregon and Upper California, published by early August, likely played a major role in the church leaders’ decision. Throughout September the Nauvoo Neighbor reprinted several excerpts of Frémont’s report, including lengthy passages on the region around what Frémont named the Great Salt Lake. In an editorial the Neighbor praised the description of the Great Salt Lake, the Bear River Valley, and the Great Basin—areas identified in council minutes as potential gathering sites. According to a letter wrote on 6 September, church leaders planned on sending the first company west sometime around 1 May 1846 and then stopping “near the ,” where the Saints could “make a stand, until we are able to enlarge and to extend to the coast.” “When we arrive there,” Pratt stated, “we will have land without buying it. And we will have liberty without asking a set of corrupt office holders for it.” On 9 September, Young relayed these plans to settle “somewhere near the Great Salt Lake” to the Council of Fifty and the council began preparing for the overland journey.
Part 3 of the record of the Council of Fifty comprises only three meetings, those held 9 September, 30 September, and 4 October 1845. The day following the 9 September meeting, violence erupted in after months of threats and rising tension. With outlying settlements under attack, attention necessarily shifted for a time from planning for the emigration to the immediate exigency of aiding and defending church members in Hancock County. The final two fall meetings were held a few days before the October general conference and served as a preparation for the conference and the public discussion in conference of plans for emigrating. Rather than the partial exodus to the West envisioned by in the 28 August meeting, the plans shifted after the vigilantism against the Saints in September to a complete withdrawal of the Saints from . Following the adjournment of the 4 October meeting, planning for the exodus shifted to more public forums and the council did not reconvene until 11 January 1846.
  1. 1

    Brigham Young et al., Nauvoo, IL, to Parley P. Pratt, 4 May 1845, copy, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  2. 2

    Historian’s Office, General Church Minutes, 4 May 1845.  

    Historian’s Office. General Church Minutes, 1839–1877. CHL

  3. 3

    See Revelation, 19 Jan. 1841, in Doctrine and Covenants [103]:9–21, 1844 ed. [D&C 124:22–72].  

  4. 4

    See Clayton, Journal, 16 May 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

  5. 5

    Historian’s Office, Journal, 24 May 1845; Kimball, Journal, 24 May 1845.  

    Historian’s Office, Journal, 1844–2012. CHL. CR 100 1.

    Kimball, Heber C. Journal, Sept. 1842; May 1844–May 1845. Heber C. Kimball, Papers, 1837–1866. CHL. MS 627, box. 3, fd. 4.

  6. 6

    Clayton, Journal, 24 May 1845; Bullock, Journal, 24 May 1845; see also Historian’s Office, Journal, 24 May 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

    Bullock, Thomas. Journal, Feb. 1844–Aug. 1845. In Historian’s Office, Journal, 1844–1997. CHL. CR 100 1, box 1, vol. 1.

    Historian’s Office, Journal, 1844–2012. CHL. CR 100 1.

  7. 7

    Clayton, Journal, 18 Aug. 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

  8. 8

    Letter, Nauvoo, IL, to Addison Pratt, 28 Aug. 1845, copy, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  9. 9

    William Smith, Bordentown, NJ, to Brigham Young, Nauvoo, IL, 27 Aug. 1844, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  10. 10

    Clayton, Journal, 23 May 1845; Monroe, Journal, 27 and 29–31 May 1845; Richards, Journal, 25 June 1845; George A. Smith, Autobiography, 28 June 1845, 84.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

    Monroe, James M. Journal, 1841–1842, 1845. CHL.

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

    Smith, George Albert, Autobiography / “History of George Albert Smith by Himself,” ca. 1857–1875. Draft. George Albert Smith, Papers, 1834–1877. CHL.

  11. 11

    Brigham Young, Nauvoo, IL, to Wilford Woodruff, 27 June 1845, copy, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL. For the disagreements between Young and Smith, see Clayton, Journal, 30 June 1845; and Brigham Young, Nauvoo, IL, to William Smith, 10 Aug. 1845, copy, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

  12. 12

    Clayton, Journal, 17 Aug. 1845; Richards, Journal, 17 Aug. 1845; Young, Journal, 17 Aug. 1845; Historian’s Office, Reports of Speeches, 17 Aug. 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

    Young, Brigham. Journals, 1832–1877. Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1, boxes 71–73.

    Historian’s Office. Reports of Speeches, 1845–1885. CHL.

  13. 13

    Clayton, Journal, 27 Aug. 1845; see also Richards, Journal, 27 Aug. 1845; and Willard Richards, Nauvoo, IL, to William Smith, 27 Aug. 1845, copy, Willard Richards, Papers, CHL.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

    Richards, Willard. Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490.

  14. 14

    “Minutes of the First General Conference,” Times and Seasons, 1 Nov. 1845, 6:1008; “Notice,” Times and Seasons, 1 Nov. 1845, 6:1019; Clayton, Journal, 19 Oct. 1845.  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

  15. 15

    Council of Fifty, “Record,” 6 May 1845.  

  16. 16

    Thomas Ford, Springfield, IL, to Miner R. Deming, Carthage, IL, 13 May 1845, copy, in Thomas Ford, Springfield, IL, to Almon Babbitt, 17 May 1845, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  17. 17

    George A. Smith and John Smith, Nauvoo, IL, to Josiah Lamborn, Carthage, IL, 21 May 1845, copy, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  18. 18

    Brigham Young to Parley P. Pratt, 26 May 1845, Copybook, p. 14, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  19. 19

    Verdict of the Jury, 30 May 1845, State of Illinois v. Williams et al. [Hancock Co. Cir. Ct. 1845], Hancock Co., IL, Circuit Court, Civil and Criminal Files, microfilm 1,521,604, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; for a summary of this trial, see Oaks and Hill, Carthage Conspiracy, chaps. 7–10.  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

    Oaks, Dallin H., and Marvin S. Hill. Carthage Conspiracy: The Trial of the Accused Assassins of Joseph Smith. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975.

  20. 20

    Richards, Journal, 10 May 1845; Council of Fifty, “Record,” 11 Mar. 1845, underlining in original.  

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

  21. 21

    Dunham, Journal, 5–8 June 1840.  

    Dunham, Jonathan. Journals, 1837–1846. Jonathan Dunham, Papers, 1825–1846. CHL. MS 1387, fds. 1–4.

  22. 22

    Phineas Young, Journal, 8–19 May 1845.  

    Young, Phineas Howe. Journal, Apr.–May 1845. CHL. MS 2788.

  23. 23

    Thomas Hendrick to Benjamin Fields, 18 May 1845, Lewis Dana, Correspondence, CHL.  

    Dana, Lewis. Correspondence, 1845. CHL.

  24. 24

    Jonathan Dunham, Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, to Brigham Young, Nauvoo, IL, 31 May 1845, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  25. 25

    Clayton, Journal, 18 June 1845; see also Brigham Young, Nauvoo, IL, to Wilford Woodruff, 27 June 1845, copy, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  26. 26

    Minutes, 25 Dec. 1846, Council of Fifty, Papers, 1844–1885, CHL.  

    Council of Fifty. Papers, 1844–1885. CHL.

  27. 27

    Clayton, Journal, 17 July 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

  28. 28

    See Council of Fifty, “Record,” 27 Feb. 1845.  

  29. 29

    Clayton, Journal, 4 and 11–15 Aug. 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

  30. 30

    Richards, Journal, 2 Aug. 1845.  

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

  31. 31

    Historian’s Office, General Church Minutes, 4 Aug. 1845.  

    Historian’s Office. General Church Minutes, 1839–1877. CHL

  32. 32

    George A. Smith, Journal, 2–3 Sept. 1844; Council of Fifty, “Record,” 4 Feb. 1845; Historian’s Office, General Church Minutes, 4 Aug. 1845. Clayton conveyed his skepticism over Emmett’s loyalty in his journal: “Emmett was baptised this evening but whether he will prove faithful is yet to be told.” (Clayton, Journal, 4 Aug. 1845.)  

    Smith, George Albert. Journals, 1839–1875. George Albert Smith, Papers. 1834–1877. CHL.

    Historian’s Office. General Church Minutes, 1839–1877. CHL

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

  33. 33

    Clayton, Journal, 22 July 1845; Young, Journal, 3 Aug. 1845; see also Richards, Journal, 3 Aug. 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

    Young, Brigham. Journals, 1832–1877. Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1, boxes 71–73.

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

  34. 34

    Young, Journal, 4 Aug. 1845.  

    Young, Brigham. Journals, 1832–1877. Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1, boxes 71–73.

  35. 35

    See Council of Fifty, “Record,” 22 Apr. 1845.  

  36. 36

    Richards, Journal, 14 Aug. 1845.  

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

  37. 37

    Richards, Journal, 27 Aug. 1845.  

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

  38. 38

    Clayton, Journal, 28 and 31 Aug. 1845; Richards, Journal, 28 and 31 Aug. 1845.  

    Clayton, William. Journals, 1842–1845. CHL.

    Richards, Willard. Journals, 1836–1853. Willard Richards, Papers, 1821–1854. CHL. MS 1490, boxes 1–2.

  39. 39

    Letter, Nauvoo, IL, to Addison Pratt, 28 Aug. 1845, copy, Brigham Young Office Files, CHL.  

    Brigham Young Office Files, 1832–1878. CHL. CR 1234 1.

  40. 40

    Pike, Exploratory Travels, 333.  

    Pike, Zebulon M. Exploratory Travels through the Western Territories of North America: Comprising a Voyage from St. Louis, on the Mississippi, to the Source of That River, and a Journey through the Interior of Louisiana, and the North-Eastern Provinces of New Spain. Performed in the Years 1805, 1806, 1807, by Order of the Government of the United States. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1811.

  41. 41

    Warner, Domínguez-Escalante Journal, 70–73; Francaviglia, Mapping and Imagination in the Great Basin, 31–32, 37–38.  

    Warner, Ted J., ed. The Domínguez-Escalante Journal: Their Expedition through Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1776. Translated by Fray Angelico Chavez. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1976.

    Francaviglia, Richard V. Mapping and Imagination in the Great Basin: A Cartographic History. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2005.

  42. 42

    Council of Fifty, “Record,” 9 Sept. 1845; “Captain Fremont’s Report,” Daily National Intelligencer [Washington DC], 7 Aug. 1845, [2]; John C. Frémont, Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842, and to Oregon and North California in the Years 1843–’44 (Washington DC: Gales and Seaton, 1845).  

    Daily National Intelligencer. Washington DC. 1800–1869.

    Frémont, John C. Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842, and to Oregon and North California in the Years 1843–’44. Washington DC: Gales and Seaton, 1845.

  43. 43

    “Capt. Fremont on the Highest Peak of the Rocky Mountains,” Nauvoo Neighbor, 10 Sept. 1845, [1]; “Capt. Fremont’s Expedition,” Nauvoo Neighbor, 17 Sept. 1845, [1]; “Western Mountains and Rivers on the Route to Oregon,” Nauvoo Neighbor, 17 Sept. 1845, [1]; “Captain Fremont’s Second Exploring Expedition,” Nauvoo Neighbor, 21 Sept. 1845, [1].  

    Nauvoo Neighbor. Nauvoo, IL. 1843–1845.

  44. 44

    Parley P. Pratt, Nauvoo, IL, to Isaac Rogers, Keyport, NJ, 6 Sept. 1845, CHL.  

    Pratt, Parley P. Letter, Nauvoo, IL, to Isaac Rogers, Keyport, NJ, 6 Sept. 1845. CHL.