Letter from Reuben McBride, 3 January 1842

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

Jany 3d 1842
Joseph Smith
Dear Brother after a Journey of 14 days from I arived in in good health and found my family enjoying the same blessing but all in confusion <​in​> accasioned by what rote in the paper and by the proceedings with and there was a great deal of jealousy against me thinking I was the means of all of it. I have opposition enough I asure you but I mean to take a stedy course let the consequences be what they ma[y] I Saw and there was so much difference between us more than I expected that I did not feel authorised to do any thing about it till I had advise from you this is the way his Ac[count] Stands against you J Smith Dr [debit] to makeing four Deeds $28 Andersons Andrews & Cowdrys [Lyman Cowdery’s] Cost $75 Motion of cort to discrarge Judgment $3 Sheriffs fee for selling $16 Judgment which he had [assig]ned over to him By Bald Spencer and Hufty $1868,58
Which amounts to $1990.58
J Smith Cr. By Land 1300 Amt. of Cr.
$1100,00 by Cash paid by $690–58
$200,00 this is the way his acount Stands he Clames Six hundred and ninety Dollars fifty eight cents then he will Deed back your house and Lot to the amount of the Saddle and bridel which he says is $30— he endorsed on a judgment against you in favor of Stanard he says he has got Demands against you of about $1400 Dollars he says he went authorised by and he was to have Doollar for Dollar for all the Demands he took up[.] I talked with about his proseedings he says it can be taken from him if by fileing a unless he should sell it to another person and he being an innocent holder not knoweing the circumstances he talked with me of Selling it he said he should be oblieged to before long or his creditors would put on to it— he go up there he thinks in the latter part of winter he says you and he can Settle [p. [1]] better than any boddy else he dose not rail out much he feels uneasy he says he can do nothing in the situation he is in now in the , whether he means to come there and setle with you or not I do not know he preaches once in a while he has one or two appointments out rount then they say he is a going quit All parties in would be glad to see you here in the Spring there would be no danger excepting debts Perkins & Osborn has the greatest Demands against you says he would not trouble you but you will know better than I could advise you I s[h]ould be very glad indeed my self, Br More would not except [accept] the order you gave me he says you had his Hous and lot which rented for $40, and that there was a years rent due he is not calcu[l]ating to go to He has nearly as quite denied the faith I had a note against him in favor of he would do nothing about it I sued him he then prefered a charge against me before the here Now I want to no [know] if a brother refuses to pay a note of hand if I have got to be brought before the authorities of the Church for Collecting it or must I take him before the authorities here in the C[hurc]h I had very hard work to get the money to pay the tax I asure you I run allmost night and Day for one week, I got the money by the way of Br Christopher Dixon I had the Land bid off for Br Dixon it was bid Down to 2 acres So he has 2 acres for securities security I thought that would be [page torn] best way it only made ten cents mor that was for [page torn] a certificate the amount of the tax was $33–91 tin [ten] cts ad[page torn] makes $34.01 he wants the money in the spring I shall have to depend on you for it for I know of no way to get it here the Books I sent By br Woodard he never sold one he said money was so scarce he come as far as Mt Vernon his horse ran away and broke his Waggon all to pieces but did not Damage the Books he had to leave them it is 100 miles from here has got a quantity of Hymn Books he got in , so there is not much prospect of selling manny at presant here has sold out his Store of Goods he claims the rent of the Store as it Stood in on your Lot when it was prisid it now stands a little south of s h[o]use on the oposite side of the Road
there has been 2 s livyed on your farm here one in favor of &c in the hands of Mathews of he says he will take it in land or he must have it secured the man who had something to do with it was at I think his name was Devenport[.] Mathews says he will not throw of[f] any thing the Judgment Stands against you and Amount $953,21
the other was levied by Perkins & osborn in favor of Some of the criditors[.] thinks the demands he has might be paid in Lands at 50 cents on the Dollar [p. [2]] Lands here or in the east so it will be nessessary for to do something if imediately I talked with he thought they could not sell the farm but they are calculating to prove there was a fraud in it advised me to let them sell it and then Defend it you must write imediately and let me know what to do, as soon as cort sits th<​e​>y then will get a right to sell it it was prised at $16 an acre cort will set in March or april, y the farm of Jonathan Herington [Harrington] you wanted I should find out about[.] there was arangmints made between and of for to turn out this farm with two others viz Alonzo Reeds farm at $2100,00 and Abel Owens at $700,00 Heringtons at $1000,00 to and Son in rote to to know if they wood except of them in the way they had agreed at the same time advising them to do so no doubt but what they would have done so he but one of the men had gone to Europe and the other had gone or sick and before he could get an answer sent some notes to that had signed and atached those three farms as his property I understand he Deeded them to his son but says the was put on before the Deeds was put on record but how that is I do not know s Dying all proseedings stop[p]ed and there can be no more done till an administrator apointed that is the situation of those farms as I have learned Abel Owen lives here his farm was his all[.] he is a man that is not able to work he cannot get to the west his family is in a suffering condition they have to be helped[.] he has some notion to [page torn] a and try to get his Land back but h[page torn] and it will cost conciderable if he should get it [page torn] if you have any advise to give or a word of consola[page torn] it might perhaps do him some good
Write and give <​me​> all the information you can tell me [page torn] to Do and what to do it with and I will do the best [I] can you must uphold me for I have a great opposition if you have any thing sp[i]ritual that would be fror my good it will be thankfully received I hope the Lord may bless you and deliver you from all your Enemies I do not think of any thing more at present I will Write as often as I find anny thing worth writing about
Yours in the bonds of the
Br. I went and saw Br More he had bought him a house and four acres of Land he said all the money he had was 70 Lbs and out of that he had paid his fare to but when he got to he was persuaded to come here he says he has written you a long letter by and wants you to sell his property and take your pay and pay Br and if it lacks any thing he will pay the balance he says he gave you $170, for the carriage and sold it again $17,00 he thinks you took the advantage of his ignorance is his counciler I thought I would do nothing about it till I heard from you if you can git your pay there you had better[.] Since I came here he has sold his house and Land [p. [3]] but I expect there [is] testimony enough to prove he sold it for fear of your debt against him he will do nothing here not willingly he says you can take the property there and get your pay he has a great many to council him and to make him believe you mean to strip him of every thing to fullfil the Prophesy you made concerning him in your Letter to him[.] that Letter has made a great Stir here you may Hope— not they think I am sent to take his property to follfil it
I sued him on a Small note I had in favor of he offers to p[ay] $30, or stand trial it is adjourned till 24 March 1842 on his making oath he wanted Dr Harv[e]y Tate for a witness
I wish you to tell Br about it and tell him the Situation of it If you cannot get your pay there the quicker you let me no [know] the better I will go a head with it just as far as you think best your House and Lot I think can be rented for about $30— or 35 a yr Br Burgess says he does not want it it is larger than he wants he will not want to pay that much for it[.] Mr. Wants to get a house he has no small children he would use it well he wants to Board Students that go to the Seminary to School and school his own children Do with it as you think best
I do not know What would give but I think he would $35 Dollars I think Sister Burges said they did not calculate to live in it another season any how sayed it was altogeather to[o] Larg[e] for their family I thought I would mention it then do as you are a mind Write and let me know about what to do with Br More and all the news there a it makes a great stir here but I Will do whatevr you and Br Joseph thinks best any how let them rage
No more at present
Br Joseph Br Christopher Dixon will take the papers if you are a mind to send them to him and turn 2 Dollars on the money I had of him for the tax also Ira Aviatt will pay $1— for six months if you think best Boath Live in
Sent you a letter with a note [page torn]ast of $550,00 Last Summer Br Hobart Says he wrote the let[ter] inst put the note in it and Directed it to you The last talk I had with he sayed he was calculating to go to the west and he would leave your house with someone that would take good care of it So he Says if you come here in the Spring you shall [have] your house to go into in welcome he says you agreed to come here next Spring he asked me if you was coming I told him I did not know whether you would or not if you was to come you would be received with great Joy by all parties here
 
<​{Paid 25​>
<​ O. Jan 4th}​>
Mr. Joseph Smith
Hancock Co.
Illinois [p. [4]]

Footnotes

  1. 1

    Likely in response to Almon Babbitt and others openly encouraging church members in Ohio and the eastern United States to settle in Kirtland, Hyrum Smith wrote a letter to an unnamed member of the Kirtland branch in October 1841 in which he asserted that “the organization of that branch of the church . . . is not according to the spirit and will of God.” He further warned members of the church in Kirtland to “pay out no monies nor properties for houses, nor lands, in that country, for if you do, you will lose them; for the time shall come that you shall not possess them in peace; but shall be scourged with a sore scourge; yet your children may possess them; but not until many years shall pass away.” The letter was published in the Times and Seasons in November 1841. (Historical Introduction to Letter to Church Leaders in Kirtland, OH, 15 Dec. 1841; Hyrum Smith, Letter, Times and Seasons, 15 [1] Nov. 1841, 3:589.)  

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  2. 2

    The church withdrew fellowship from Babbitt in October 1841. (Minutes and Discourse, 1–5 Oct. 1841.)  

  3. 3

    This likely refers to the service fee charged for filing the deeds in Chardon, the seat of Geauga County, Ohio. Kirtland was part of Geauga County until 1840, when it became part of Lake County.  

  4. 4

    TEXT: “[page torn]ned”. Missing characters here and in the remainder of the document are supplied from context.  

  5. 5

    Underwood, Bald, Spencer & Hufty was a printing and engraving firm that had offices in New York City and Philadelphia. In 1836 church leaders commissioned the firm to make printing plates from which they printed notes for the Kirtland Safety Society. In June 1837 the engraving firm took JS and other Kirtland residents to court after they defaulted on the promissory note they had provided as payment for the plates. Underwood and the others were represented by the law firm Andrews, Foot & Hoyt. Although not part of the original lawsuit, Kirtland attorney Lyman Cowdery also represented the firm in 1839. In April 1841 Babbitt assumed the cost of the judgment. (Griffiths, Story of the American Bank Note Company, 27–28, 31; “Mormonism in Ohio,” Aurora [New Lisbon, OH], 19 Jan. 1837, [3]; “Bank at Kirtland,” Cleveland Weekly Advertiser, 29 Dec. 1836, [1]; Transcript of Proceedings, 16 Apr. 1839, Underwood et al. v. Rigdon et al. [Geauga Co. C.P. 1839], Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Record Book X, pp. 34–36, Geauga County Archives and Records Center, Chardon, OH; Case Costs, 16 Apr. 1839, Underwood et al. v. Rigdon et al. [Geauga Co. C.P. 1839], Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Execution Docket G, p. 676, Geauga County Archives and Records Center, Chardon, OH.)  

    Griffiths, William H. The Story of the American Bank Note Company. New York: American Bank Note Company, 1959.

    Aurora. New Lisbon, OH. 1835–1837.

    Cleveland Weekly Advertiser. Cleveland. 1836–1840.

  6. 6

    This may refer to the land that Peirce—a resident of Chester County, Pennsylvania—sold to church agent Isaac Galland for $5,000. On 29 May 1841 and 28 February 1842, JS, as trustee of the church, deeded Peirce land in Nauvoo worth $4,200 as payment. The $1,100 mentioned here may have been connected to that transaction. (Hancock Co., IL, Deed Records, 1817–1917, vol. I, pp. 330–331, 29 May 1841, microfilm 954,598, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Deed to Robert Peirce, 28 Feb. 1842; JS, Journal, 28 Feb. 1842; Letter from Robert Peirce, 28 Feb. 1842.)  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  7. 7

    In February 1841 JS authorized Galland and Hyrum Smith to act as church agents to raise money for the construction of the Nauvoo House and the temple in Nauvoo, Illinois. While in the East, the men also facilitated land exchanges—wherein church members in New Jersey and Pennsylvania traded their land for lots in or around Nauvoo—to help pay debts incurred from the purchase of land in Illinois from Horace Hotchkiss. Galland left the eastern United States to return to Nauvoo in July 1841 and may have stopped in Kirtland along the way. (Historical Introduction to Authorization for Hyrum Smith and Isaac Galland, 15 Feb. 1841; Letter from William Smith, 5 Aug. 1841.)  

  8. 8

    It appears that Babbitt had at some point acquired title to JS’s former residence in Kirtland, which was located just north of the cemetery on the bluff above the Kirtland flats in northwestern Kirtland Township. (See “Kirtland Township with Plots, January 1838.”)  

  9. 9

    This may relate to a legal dispute over an unpaid promissory note—signed by JS and Brigham Young in October 1836—worth $235.50 that was originally due to Claudius Stannard in October 1837. (See Transcript of Proceedings, 3 Apr. 1838, Stannard v. Young and JS [Geauga Co. C.P. 1838], Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Record Book U, pp. 585–586, Geauga County Archives and Records Center, Chardon, OH.)  

  10. 10

    Bissell was a Painesville, Ohio, attorney with the firm Bissell & Axtell. He served as counsel to JS’s brother Samuel Smith in 1835. (“Bissell and Axtell,” Painesville [OH] Telegraph, 25 Aug. 1837, 3; “The Late Salmon B. Axtell,” Painesville Telegraph, 19 Sept. 1861, 3; JS, Journal, 26 Oct. 1835.)  

    Painesville Telegraph. Painesville, OH. 1822–1986.

  11. 11

    A bill in chancery is a statement outlining a plaintiff’s case against a defendant in a chancery court. (“Bill,” in Bouvier, Law Dictionary, 1:197.)  

    Bouvier, John. A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America, and of the Several States of the American Union; With References to the Civil and Other Systems of Foreign Law. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Deacon and Peterson, 1854.

  12. 12

    The Painesville, Ohio, law firm Perkins & Osborn provided legal counsel to JS and other church leaders in 1837 and 1838 and had not been paid for all its services. Additionally, Perkins & Osborn represented New York creditors requiring payment on promissory notes signed by JS and church leaders in 1837. (See Statement of Account from Perkins & Osborn, ca. 29 Oct. 1838; and Agreement with Mead & Betts, 2 Aug. 1839.)  

  13. 13

    This likely refers to Henry Moore. In December 1840, in exchange for a financial order owed to JS, Moore agreed to pay JS $150 and granted him control of a house and lot he owned in Nauvoo as security. It appears that Moore had not fully satisfied the debt by January 1842 and that JS empowered Reuben McBride to collect the remaining balance. If the featured letter is referring to Moore, he apparently refused to pay JS any additional money, since JS had collected rent on Moore’s Nauvoo property. (JS to Henry Moore, Agreement, 23 Dec. 1840, JS Collection [Supplement], CHL.)  

  14. 14

    In August 1841 the Kirtland elders quorum voted that Henry Moore “be not considered to belong to the quorum of Elders.” (Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 8 Aug. 1841.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  15. 15

    This was likely a tax due Lake County on land the church owned in Kirtland. Taxes were usually assessed and due at the end of the year, so McBride may have struggled to pay taxes that were due in December 1841.  

  16. 16

    This likely refers to church member Christopher Dixon, who lived in Kirtland during this period. (Lake Co., OH, Treasurer’s Tax Duplicates, 1840–1871, Tax Duplicates, 1843, p. 199, microfilm 973,857, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  17. 17

    Possibly Jedediah Woodard, a church member who lived in Kirtland. (Book of the Law of the Lord, 260; Geauga Co., OH, Deed Records, 1795–1921, vol. 30, p. 31, 13 Apr. 1839, microfilm 20,242, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; 1840 U.S. Census, Kirtland Township, Lake Co., OH, 92; JS et al., Memorial to the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, 28 Nov. 1843, Record Group 46, Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives, Washington DC.)  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

    Census (U.S.) / U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population Schedules. Microfilm. FHL.

  18. 18

    Likely Mount Vernon, Ohio, which is located approximately 120 miles southwest of Kirtland.  

  19. 19

    This likely refers to a new edition of the church hymnbook that became available in Nauvoo in April 1841. (Emma Smith, comp., A Collection of Sacred Hymns for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [Nauvoo, IL: E. Robinson, 1841]; “Books,” Times and Seasons, 15 Mar. 1841, 2:355.)  

    A Collection of Sacred Hymns, for the Church of the Latter Day Saints. Edited by Emma Smith. Kirtland, OH: F. G. Williams, 1835.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  20. 20

    JS, individually or as part of the firm Rigdon, Smith & Co., reportedly operated a mercantile store in Kirtland. The building was apparently located across from JS’s Kirtland residence on Chillicothe Road. (Deed, 3 June 1841, in Lake Co., OH, Land Registry Records, bk. A, p. 513, CHL.)  

    Lake County, Ohio. Land Registry Records, 1840–1842. CHL.

  21. 21

    An execution of this type was “the act of carrying into effect the final judgment of a court.” (“Execution,” in Bouvier, Law Dictionary, 1:538.)  

    Bouvier, John. A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America, and of the Several States of the American Union; With References to the Civil and Other Systems of Foreign Law. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Deacon and Peterson, 1854.

  22. 22

    In April 1837 JS, Hyrum Smith, Rigdon, Bosley, and Johnson purchased goods on credit from Howden and provided him with two promissory notes totaling $1,650. One note was later endorsed by Howden and transferred to Ray Boynton and Harry Hyde, who sued JS and the others for payment in 1838. In August 1841 a man by the name of Devenport appeared in Nauvoo and presented JS and Hyrum Smith with a judgment related to the Boynton and Hyde case. Church leaders reportedly referred him to Oliver Granger, whom they instructed in an August 1841 letter to settle the judgment. By 1842 the execution was apparently held by the above-referenced Mathews of Painesville, Ohio. (Statement of Account from John Howden, 29 Mar. 1838; Transcript of Proceedings, 3 Apr. 1838, Boynton and Hyde v. JS [Geauga Co. C.P. 1838], Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Record Book U, pp. 512–513, Geauga County Archives and Records Center, Chardon, OH; Case Costs, ca. 3 Apr. 1838, Boynton and Hyde v. Rigdon [Geauga Co. C.P. 1838], Geauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Execution Docket G, p. 356, Geauga County Archives and Records Center, Chardon, OH; Letter to Oliver Granger, 30 Aug. 1841.)  

  23. 23

    TEXT: The ink color changes at this point from brown to blue.  

  24. 24

    In October 1840 Oliver Granger acquired several farms—totaling about two hundred acres—in Oswego County, New York, from Jonathan and Julia Harrington, Alonzo and Betsey Reed, Thomas and Elizabeth King, and Abel and Betsy Owen. The land was to be exchanged for land in Illinois or Iowa Territory. Apparently, Granger arranged with Reuben Hitchcock, attorney and district judge of the court of common pleas, to deed the Harrington, Reed, and Owen farms to the New York mercantile firm John Hitchcock & Son as payment for debts church leaders owed. (Abel Owen and Betsy Owen to Oliver Granger, Deed, 10 Oct. 1840, Hiram Kimball, Collection, CHL; JS per William Clayton to Jonathan Harrington, Receipt, 8 July 1842, JS Office Papers, CHL; Oswego Co., NY, Deeds, 1792–1902, vol. 32, pp. 33–36, microfilm 1,011,773; vol. 34, pp. 157–158, microfilm 1,011,774, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; Benjamin Elsworth, Palermo, NY, 18 Oct. 1840, Letter to the Editor, Times and Seasons, 15 Nov. 1840, 2:219–220; see also, for example, John Hitchcock & Son to Cahoon, Carter & Co., Bill, ca. 12 Oct. 1836, JS Office Papers, CHL.)  

    Kimball, Hiram. Collection, 1830–1910. CHL.

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

    Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

  25. 25

    As McBride noted, several individuals had competing claims to the land. It appears that before John Hitchcock & Son could respond to the proposed settlement, William Perkins, a Painesville lawyer representing Oliver Granger in resolving debts, sent the promissory notes Granger had signed that promised the farms, located in Oswego County, New York, as payment to the New York firm. After this arrangement was made, Granger apparently deeded the properties to his son Gilbert Granger. Perkins apparently argued that the arrangement to use the Oswego land as payment was in force before Granger deeded the land to his son.  

  26. 26

    Owen sold his farm, located in Palermo, New York, to church agent Oliver Granger on 10 October 1840 for $700. The Owen family was apparently living in Kirtland by August 1841. (Abel Owen and Betsy Owen to Oliver Granger, Deed, 10 Oct. 1840, Hiram Kimball, Collection, CHL; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 8 Aug. 1841.)  

    Kimball, Hiram. Collection, 1830–1910. CHL.

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  27. 27

    TEXT: Page torn.  

  28. 28

    “Br More” likely refers to Henry Moore. He apparently owned property in block 151, lot 2, in Nauvoo, though it is unclear whether this is the property mentioned here. (JS to Henry Moore, Agreement, 23 Dec. 1840, JS Collection [Supplement], CHL; Miller, “Study of Property Ownership: Nauvoo,” 151; “A List and Description of All Taxable Lots and Lands Lying within the Fourth Ward of the City of Nauvoo,” 1842, p. 6, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL.)  

    Miller, Rowena J. “Study of Property Ownership: Nauvoo; Original Town of Nauvoo, 1839–1850,” ca. 1965. In Nauvoo Restoration, Inc., Corporate Files, 1839–1992. CHL.

    Nauvoo, IL, Records, 1841–1845. CHL.

  29. 29

    Tate, a church member, was a medical doctor who graduated from the Medical College of Ohio in 1840 and lived in Cass County, Illinois, by 1841. He advertised his services in the Nauvoo publication Wasp. (Martin, History of Cass County, 2:767; Perrin, History of Cass County, Illinois, 84; Nauvoo Temple, Record of Baptisms for the Dead, vol. A, p. 160; “H. Tate, M.D.,” Wasp, 3 Dec. 1842, [3].)  

    Martin, Charles, ed. History of Cass County. 2 vols. Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, edited by Newton Bateman and Paul Selby. Chicago: Munsell Publishing, 1915.

    Perrin, William Henry, ed. History of Cass County Illinois. Chicago: O. L. Baskin, 1882.

    Nauvoo Temple. Record of Baptisms for the Dead, 1841, 1843–1845. CHL.

    The Wasp. Nauvoo, IL. Apr. 1842–Apr. 1843.

  30. 30

    Hyrum Smith’s Kirtland home was built on a one-acre lot located approximately two hundred yards south of the Kirtland temple (part of lot 30 in Kirtland Township). (Geauga Co., OH, Deed Records, 1795–1921, vol. 24, p. 124, 4 Nov. 1836, microfilm 20,240, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)  

    U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

  31. 31

    Possibly church member Harrison Burgess, who was still living in Kirtland in December 1840. (Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 24 Dec. 1840.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  32. 32

    Likely the Western Reserve Teacher’s Seminary and Kirtland Institute, which was founded in 1838 to train male and female teachers. The institute initially met in the House of the Lord before relocating to the Methodist church. (Alcott, American Annals of Education, for the Year 1838, 429; Mackay and Mackay, “Time of Transition,” 133–134.)  

    Alcott, William A., ed. American Annals of Education, for the Year 1838. Boston: Otis and Broaders, 1838.

    Mackay, Christin Craft, and Lachlan Mackay. “A Time of Transition: The Kirtland Temple, 1838–1880.” John Whitmer Historical Association Journal 18 (1998): 133–148.

  33. 33

    As agents of the church, Oliver Granger and Reuben McBride were authorized to rent out properties church leaders still owned in Kirtland. For example, former church member Joseph Coe reportedly rented JS’s farm in Kirtland during the early 1840s. (JS, Nauvoo, IL, to Joseph Coe, Kirtland, OH, 18 Jan. 1844, copy, JS Collection, CHL.)  

  34. 34

    Probably church member Ira Oviatt, who lived in Kirtland between 1840 and 1842. (Obituary for Ira Oviatt, Deseret News [Salt Lake City], 15 July 1868, 183; 1840 U.S. Census, Kirtland Township, Lake Co., OH, 92; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 11 July 1841; “Alphabetical List of Property Assessed in the Fourth Ward,” 1843, Nauvoo block 148, lot 1, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL.)  

    Deseret News. Salt Lake City. 1850–.

    Census (U.S.) / U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population Schedules. Microfilm. FHL.

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

    Nauvoo, IL. Records, 1841–1845. CHL. MS 16800.

  35. 35

    TEXT: The text in this paragraph is written vertically across page [1], beginning at the left margin.  

  36. 36

    Possibly Kirtland church member Otis Hobart, who was sustained as a counselor in the elders quorum presidency in November 1840 and apparently served as clerk of that body through May 1841. (Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record,” 11 Nov. 1840 and 21 May 1841.)  

    Kirtland Elders Quorum. “A Record of the First Quorurum of Elders Belonging to the Church of Christ: In Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio,” 1836–1838, 1840–1841. CCLA.

  37. 37

    TEXT: “let[page torn]”.  

  38. new scribe logo

    Postage in unidentified handwriting; Lyman Cowdery was the postmaster of Kirtland at this time. (U.S. Post Office Department, Record of Appointment of Postmasters, reel 100, vol. 9, p. 211.)  

    U.S. Post Office Department. Record of Appointment of Postmasters, 1832–September 30, 1971. National Archives Microfilm Publications, microcopy M841. 145 microfilm reels. Washington DC: National Archives, 1977.

  39. new scribe logo

    Postmark likely written by Lyman Cowdery. (U.S. Post Office Department, Record of Appointment of Postmasters, reel 100, vol. 9, p. 211.)  

    U.S. Post Office Department. Record of Appointment of Postmasters, 1832–September 30, 1971. National Archives Microfilm Publications, microcopy M841. 145 microfilm reels. Washington DC: National Archives, 1977.