Times and Seasons, 1 March 1842

  • Source Note
  • Historical Introduction

Document Transcript

TIMES AND SEASONS.
 
“Truth will prevail.”
 
Vol. III. No. 9.]- CITY OF , ILL. March, 1, 1842. -[Whole No. 45.
 
NO. 1.
[facsimile of vignette]
 
Explanation of the above Cut.
Fig. 1,— The Angel of the Lord.
2. Abraham, fastened upon an Altar.
3. The Idolatrous Priest of Elkenah attempting to offer up Abraham as a sacrifice.
4. The Altar for sacrifice, by the Idolatrous Priests, standing before the Gods of Elkenah, Libnah, Mahmachrah, Korash, and Pharaoh.
5. The Idolatrous God of Elkenah.
6. The " " " Libnah.
7. The " " " Mahmachrah.
8. The " " " Korash.
9. The " " " Pharaoh.
10. Abraham in Egypt.
11. Designed to represent the pillars of Heaven, as understood by the Egyptians.
12. Raukeeyang, signifying expanse, or the firmament, over our heads; but in this case, in relation to this subject, the Egyptians meant it to signify Shamau, to be high, or the heavens: answering to the Hebrew word, Shaumahyeem.
[p. [703]]
A TRANSLATION
Of some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands, from the Catecombs of Egypt, purporting to be the writings of Abraham, while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus.
The Book of Abraham.
In the land of the Chaldeans, at the residence of my father, I, Abraham, saw that it was needful for me to obtain another place of residence, and finding there was greater happiness and peace and rest for me, I sought for the blessings of the fathers and the right whereunto I should be ordained to administer the same; having been myself a follower of righteousness, desiring also to be one who possessed great knowledge, and to be a greater follower of righteousness, and to possess a greater knowledge, and to be a father of many nations, a prince of peace; and desiring to receive instructions, and to keep the commandments of God, I became a rightful heir, a high priest, holding the right belonging to the fathers, it was conferred upon me from the fathers; it came down from the fathers, from the beginning of time, yea, even from the beginning, or before the foundations of the earth, to the present time, even the right of the first born, on the first man, who is Adam, or first father, through the fathers, unto me.
2. I sought for mine appointment unto the Priesthood according to the appointment of God unto the fathers, concerning the seed. My fathers having turned from their righteousness, and from the holy commandments which the Lord their God had given unto them, unto the worshipping of the Gods of the heathens, utterly refused to hearken to my voice; for their hearts were set to do evil, and were wholly turned to the God of Elkenah, and the God of Libnah, and the God of Mahmackrah, and the God of Korash, and the God of Pharaoh, King of Egypt; therefore they turned their hearts to the sacrifice of the heathen in offering up their children unto their dumb idols, and hearkened not unto my voice but endeavored to take away my life by the hand of the priest of Elkenah; the priest of Elkenah was also the priest of Pharaoh.
3. Now, at this time it was the custom of the priest of Pharaoh, the King of Egypt to offer up upon the altar which was built in the land of Chaldea, for the offering unto these strange Gods, both men, wo[m]en and children. And it came to pass that the priest made an offering unto the God of Pharaoh, and also unto the God of Shagreel, even after the manner of the Egyptians. Now the God of Shagreel was the Sun. Even the thank-offering of a child did the priest of Pharaoh offer upon the altar, which stood by the hill called Potiphar’s Hill, at the head of the plain of Olishem. Now, this priest had offered upon this altar three virgins at one time, who were the daughters of Onitah, one of the Royal descent, directly from the loins of Ham. These virgins were offered up because of their virtue; they would not bow down to worship Gods of wood or of stone, therefore they were killed upon this altar, and it was done after the manner of the Egyptians.
4. And it come to pass that the priests laid violence upon me, that they might slay me, also, as they did those virgins, upon this altar; and that you might have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record. It was made after the form of a bedstead, such as was had among the Chaldeans, and it stood before the gods of Elkenah, Libnah, Mahmackrah, Korash, & also a God like unto that of Pharaoh King of Egypt. That you may have an understanding of these Gods, I have given you the fashion of them in the figures, at the beginning, which manner of the figures is called by the Chaldeans Rahleenos, which signifies Hyeroglyphics.
5. And as they lifted up their hands upon me, that they might offer me up, and take away my life, behold, I lifted up my voice unto the Lord my God; and the Lord hearkened and heard, and he filled me with a vision of the Almighty, and the angel of his presence stood by me, and immediately unloosed my bands, and his voice was unto me. Abram! Abram! behold, my name is JEHOVAH, and I have heard thee, and have come down to deliver thee, and to take thee away from thy fathers house, and from all thy kin-folks, into a strange land, which thou knowest not of, and this because they have turned their hearts away from me, to worship the God of Elkenah, and the God of Libnah, & the God of Mahmackrah, & the God of Korash, and the God of Pharaoh King of Egypt; therefore I have come down to visit them, and to destroy him who hath lifted up his hand against thee, Abram, my son, to take away thy life: Behold I will lead thee by my hand, and I [p. 704] will take thee, to put upon thee my name, even the priesthood of thy father: and my power shall be over thee; as it was with Noah so shall it be with thee; that through thy ministry my name shall be known in the earth forever, for I am thy God.
6. Behold, Potiphar’s Hill was in the land of Ur, of Chaldea; and the Lord broke down the altar of Elkenah, and of the Gods of the land, and utterly destroyed them, and smote the priest that he died; and there was great mourning in Chaldea, and also in the court of Pharaoh, which Pharaoh signifies King by royal blood.— Now this King of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites, by birth. From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land.
7. The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which, in the Chaldea, signifies Egypt, which signifies, that which is forbidden. When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterwards settled her sons in it: And thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse in the land. Now the first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham, and it was after the manner of the government of Ham, which was Patriarchal. Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and judged his people wisely and justly all his days, seeking earnestly to imitate that order established by the fathers in the first generations, in the days of the first Patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also Noah, his father, who blessed him with the blessings of the earth, and with the blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood.
8. Now Pharaoh being of that lineage, by which he could not have the right of Priesthood, notwithstanding the Pharaoh’s would fain claim it from Noah, through Ham, therefore my father was led away by their idolatry; but I shall endeavor hereafter to delineate the chronology, running back from myself to the beginning of the creation, for the records have come into my hands, which I hold unto this present time.
9. Now, after the priest of Elkenah was smitten, that he died, there came a fulfilment of those things which were said unto me concerning the land of Chaldea, that there should be a famine in the land. Accordingly a famine prevailed throughout all the land of Chaldea, and my father was sorely tormented because of the famine, and he repented of the evil which he had determined against me, to take away my life. But the records of the fathers, even the Patriarchs, concerning the right of Priesthood, the Lord my God preserved in mine own hands, therefore a knowledge of the beginning of the creation, and also of the planets, and of the stars, as they were made known unto the fathers, have I kept even unto this day, and I shall endeavor to write some of these things upon this record, for the benefit of my posterity that shall come after me.
10. Now the Lord God caused the famine to wax sore in the land of Ur, insomuch that Haran, my brother, died, but Terah, my father, yet lived in the land of Ur, of the Chaldee’s. And it came to pass that I, Abraham, took Sarai to wife, and Nehor, my brother, took Milcah to wife, who were the daughters of Haran. Now the Lord had said unto me, Abram, get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will shew thee. Therefore I left the land of Ur, of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and I took Lot, my brother’s son, and his wife, and Sarai, my wife, and also my father followed after me, unto the land which we denominated Haran. And the famine abated; and my father tarried in Haran and dwelt there, as there were many flocks in Haran; and my father turned again unto his idolatry, therefore he continued in Haran.
11. But I, Abram, and Lot, my brother’s son, prayed unto the Lord, and the Lord appeared unto me, and said unto me, arise, and take Lot with thee, for I have purposed to take thee away out of Haran, and to make of thee a minister, to bear my name in a strange land which I will give unto thy seed after thee for an everlasting possession, when they hearken to my voice, for I am the Lord thy God; I dwell in Heaven, the earth is my footstool; I stretch my hand over the sea, and it obeys my voice; I cause the wind and the fire to be my chariot; I say to the mountains depart hence, and behold they are taken away by a whirlwind, in an instant, suddenly. My name is Jeho [p. 705]vah, and I know the end from the beginning, therefore, my hand shall be over thee, and I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee above measure, and make thy name great among all nations, and thou shalt be a blessing unto thy seed after thee, that in their hands they shall bear this ministry and priesthood unto all nations; and I will bless them through thy name; for as many as receive this gospel shall be called after thy name, and shall be accounted thy seed, and shall rise up and bless thee, as unto their father, and I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee, and in thee, (that is, in thy Priesthood) and in thy seed, (that is thy Priesthood,) for I give unto thee a promise that this right shall continue in thee, and in thy seed after thee (that is to say, the literal seed, or the seed of the body,) shall all the families of the earth be blessed, even with the blessings of the gospel, which are the blessings of salvation, even of life eternal.
12. Now, after the Lord had withdrawn from speaking to me, and withdrawn his face from me, I said in mine heart, thy servent has sought thee earnestly, now I have found thee. Thou didst send thine angel to deliver me from the Gods of Elkenah, and I will do well to hearken unto thy voice, therefore let thy servant rise up and depart in peace. So I, Abram, departed as the Lord had said unto me, and Lot with me, and I, Abram, was sixty and two years old when I departed out of Haran. And I took Sarai, whom I took to wife when I was in Ur, in Chaldea, and Lot, my brother’s son, and all our substance that we had gathered, and the souls that we had won in Haran, and came forth in the way to the land of Canaan, and dwelt in tents, as we came on our way: therefore, eternity was our covering, and our rock, and our salvation, as we journeyed from Haran by the way of Jershon, to come to the land of Canaan.
13. Now I, Abram, built an altar in the land of Jershon, and made an offering unto the Lord, and prayed that the famine might be turned away from my father’s house, that they might not perish; and then we passed from Jershon through the land, unto the place of Sechem. It was situated in the plains of Moreh, and we had already came into the borders of the land of the Canaanites, and I offered sacrifice there in the plains of Moreh, and called on the Lord devoutly because we had already come into the land of this idolatrous nation.
 
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At the request of Mr. , Editor, and Proprietor of the “Chicago Democrat,” I have written the following sketch of the rise, progress, persecution, and faith of the , of which I have the honor, under God, of being the founder. says, that he wishes to furnish , a friend of his, who is writing the history of New Hampshire, with this document. As has taken the proper steps to obtain correct information all that I shall ask at his hands, is, that he publish the account entire, ungarnished, and without misrepresentation.
I was born in the town of Windsor co., Vermont, on the 23d of December, A. D. 1805. When ten years old my parents removed to New York, where we resided about four years, and from thence we removed to the town of .
My was a farmer and taught me the art of husbandry. When about fourteen years of age I began to reflect upon the importance of being prepared for a future state, and upon enquiring the plan of salvation I found that there was a great clash in religious sentiment; if I went to one society they referred me to one plan, and another to another; each one pointing to his own particular creed as the summum bonum of perfection: considering that all could not be right, and that God could not be the author of so much confusion I determined to investigate the subject more fully, believing that if God had a church it would not be split up into factions, and that if he taught one society to worship one way, and administer in one set of ordinances, he would not teach another principles which were diametrically opposed. Believing the word of God I had confidence in the declaration of James; “If any man lack wisdom let him ask of God who giveth to all men liberally and upbraideth not and it shall be given him,” I retired to a secret place in a grove and began to call upon the Lord, while fervently engaged in supplication my mind was taken away from the objects with which I was surrounded, and I was enwrapped in a [p. 706] heavenly vision and saw two glorious personages who exactly resembled each other in features, and likeness, surrounded with a brilliant light which eclipsed the sun at noon-day. They told me that all religious denominations were believing in incorrect doctrines, and that none of them was acknowledged of God as his church and kingdom. And I was expressly commanded to “go not after them,” at the same time receiving a promise that the fulness of the gospel should at some future time be made known unto me.
On the evening of the 21st of September, A. D. 1823, while I was praying unto God, and endeavoring to exercise faith in the precious promises of scripture on a sudden a light like that of day, only of a far purer and more glorious appearance, and brightness burst into the room, indeed the first sight was as though the house was filled with consuming fire; the appearance produced a shock that affected the whole body; in a moment a personage stood before me surrounded with a glory yet greater than that with which I was already surrounded. This messenger proclaimed himself to be an angel of God sent to bring the joyful tidings, that the covenant which God made with ancient Israel was at hand to be fulfilled, that the preparatory work for the second coming of the Messiah was speedily to commence; that the time was at hand for the gospel, in all its fulness to be preached in power, unto all nations that a people might be prepared for the millennial reign.
I was informed that I was chosen to be an instrument in the hands of God to bring about some of his purposes in this glorious .
I was also informed concerning the aboriginal inhabitants of this , and shown who they were, and from whence they came; a brief sketch of their origin, progress, civilization, laws, governments, of their righteousness and iniquity, and the blessings of God being finally withdrawn from them as a people was made known unto me: I was also told where there was deposited some on which were engraven an abridgement of the records of the ancient prophets that had existed on this continent. The angel appeared to me three times the same night and unfolded the same things. After having received many visits from the angels of God unfolding the majesty, and glory of the events that should transpire in the last days, on the morning of the 22d of September A. D. 1827, the angel of the Lord delivered the records into my hands.
These records were engraven on plates which had the appearance of gold, each plate was six inches wide and eight inches long and not quite so thick as common tin. They were filled with engravings, in Egyptian characters and bound together in a volume, as the leaves of a book with three rings running through the whole. The volume was something near six inches in thickness, a part of which was sealed. The characters on the unsealed part were small, and beautifully engraved. The whole book exhibited many marks of antiquity in its construction and much skill in the art of engraving. With the records was found a curious instrument which the ancients called “,” which consisted of two transparent stones set in the rim of a bow fastened to a breastplate.
Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the record by the gift, and power of God.
In this important and interesting book the history of ancient America is unfolded, from its first settlement by a colony that came from the tower of Babel, at the confusion of languages to the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. We are informed by these records that America in ancient times has been inhabited by two distinct races of people. The first were called Jaredites and came directly from the tower of Babel. The second race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred years before Christ. They were principally Israelites, of the descendants of Joseph. The Jaredites were destroyed about the time that the Israelites came from Jerusalem, who succeeded them in the inheritance of the country. The principal nation of the second race fell in battle towards the close of the fourth century. The remnant are the Indians that now inhabit this . This book also tells us that our Saviour made his appearance upon this continent after his resurrection, that he planted the gospel here in all its fulness, and richness, and power, and blessing; that they had apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers and evangelists; the same order, the same priesthood, the [p. 707] same ordinances, gifts, powers, and blessing, as was enjoyed on the eastern continent, that the people were cut off in consequence of their transgressions, that the last of their prophets who existed among them was commanded to write an abridgement of their prophesies, history &c., and to hide it up in the earth, and that it should come forth and be united with the bible for the accomplishment of the purposes of God in the last days. For a more particular account I would refer to the Book of Mormon, which can be purchased at , or from any of our travelling .
As soon as the news of this discovery was made known, false reports, misrepresentation and slander flew as on the wings of the wind in every direction, the house was frequently beset by mobs, and evil designing persons, several times I was shot at, and very narrowly escaped, and every device was made use of to get the away from me, but the power and blessing of God attended me, and several began to believe my testimony.
On the 6th of April, 1830, the “,” was first organized in the town of , Ontario co., state of New York. Some few were called and by the spirit of revelation, and prophesy, and began to preach as the spirit gave them utterance, and though weak, yet were they strengthened by the power of God, and many were brought to repentance, were immersed in the water, and were filled with the Holy Ghost by the . They saw visions and prophesied, devils were cast out and the sick healed by the laying on of hands. From that time the work rolled forth with astonishing rapidity, and churches were soon formed in the states of , , , , and ; in the last named state a considerable settlement was formed in ; numbers joined the church and we were increasing rapidly; we made large purchases of land, our farms teemed with plenty, and peace and happiness was enjoyed in our domestic circle and throughout our neighborhood; but as we could not associate with our neighbors who were many of them of the basest of men and had fled from the face of civilized society, to the frontier country to escape the hand of justice, in their midnight revels, their sabbath breaking, horseracing, and gambling, they commenced at first ridicule, then to persecute, and finally an organized mob assembled and burned our houses, tarred, and feathered, and whipped many of our brethren and finally drove them from their habitations; who houseless, and homeless, contrary to law, justice and humanity, had to wander on the bleak prairies till the children left the tracks of their blood on the prairie, this took place in the month of November, and they had no other covering but the canopy of heaven, in this inclement season of the year; this proceeding was winked at by the government and although we had warrantee deeds for our land, and had violated no law we could obtain no redress.
There were many sick, who were thus inhumanly driven from their houses, and had to endure all this abuse and to seek homes where they could be found. The result was, that a great many of them being deprived of the comforts of life, and the necessary attendances, died; many children were left orphans; wives, widows; and husbands widowers.—Our farms were taken possession of by the mob, many thousands of cattle, sheep, horses, and hogs, were taken and our household goods, store goods, and printing press, and type were broken, taken, or otherwise destroyed.
Many of our brethren removed to where they continued until 1836, three years; there was no violence offered but there were threatnings of violence. But in the summer of 1836, these threatnings began to assume a more serious form; from threats, public meetings were called, resolutions were passed, vengeance and destruction were threatened, and affairs again assumed a fearful attitude, was a sufficient precedent, and as the authorities in that county did not interfere, they boasted that they would not in this, which on application to the authorities we found to be too true, and after much violence, privation and loss of property we were again driven from our homes.
We next settled in , and counties, where we made large and extensive settlements, thinking to free ourselves from the power of oppression, by settling in new counties, with very few inhabitants in them; but here we were not allowed to live in peace, but in 1838 we were again attacked by mobs [p. 708] an exterminating order was issued by , and under the sanction of law an organized banditti ranged through the country, robbed us of our cattle, sheep, horses, hogs &c., many of our people were murdered in cold blood, the chastity of our women was violated, and we were forced to sign away our property at the point of the sword, and after enduring every indignity that could be heaped upon us by an inhuman, ungodly band of maurauders, from twelve to fifteen thousand souls men, women, and children were driven from their own fire sides, and from lands that they had warrantee deeds of, houseless, friendless, and homeless (in the depth of winter,) to wander as exiles on the earth or to seek an asylum in a more genial clime, and among a less barbarous people.
Many sickened and died, in consequence of the cold, and hardships they had to endure; many wives were left widows, and children orphans, and destitute. It would take more time than is allotted me here to describe the injustice, the wrongs, the murders, the bloodshed, the theft, misery and woe that has been caused by the barbarous, inhuman, and lawless, proceedings of the state of .
In the situation before alluded to we arrived in the state of in 1839, where we found a hospitable people and a friendly home; a people who were willing to be governed by the principles of law and humanity. We have commenced to build a city called “” in Hancock co., we number from six to eight thousand here besides vast numbers in the around and in almost every county of the . We have a city charter granted us and a charter for a the troops of which now number 1500. We have also a charter for a university, for an agricultural and manufacturing society, have our own laws and administrators, and possess all the privileges that other free and enlightened citizens enjoy.
Persecution has not stopped the progress of truth, but has only added fuel to the flame, it has spread with increasing rapidity, proud of the cause which they have espoused and conscious of their innocence and of the truth of their system amidst calumny and reproach have the of this gone forth, and planted the gospel in almost every state in the ; it has penetrated our cities, it has spread over our villages, and has caused thousands of our intelligent, noble, and patriotic citizens to obey its divine mandates, and be governed by its sacred truths. It has also spread into , Ireland, Scotland and Wales: in the year of 1839 where a few of our missionaries were sent over five thousand joined the standard of truth, there are numbers now joining in every land.
Our missionaries are going forth to different nations, and in , Palestine, New Holland, the East Indies, and other places, the standard of truth has been erected: no unhallowed hand can stop the work from progressing, persecutions may rage, mobs may combine, armies may assemble, calumny may defame, but the truth of God will go forth boldly, nobly, and independent till it has penetrated every continent, visited every clime, swept every country, and sounded in every ear, till the purposes of God shall be accomplished and the great Jehovah shall say the work is done.
We believe in God the Eternal Father, and in his son Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost.
We believe that men will be punished for their own sins and not for Adam’s transgression.
We believe that through the atonement of Christ all mankind may be saved by obedience to the laws and of the Gospel.
We believe that these ordinances are 1st, Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; 2d, Repentance; 3d, by immersion for the remission of sins; 4th, for the .
We believe that a man must be called of God by “prophesy, and by laying on of hands” by those who are in authority to preach the gospel and administer in the ordinances thereof.
We believe in the same organization that existed in the primitive church, viz: apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists &c.
We believe in the gift of tongues, prophesy, revelation, visions, healing, interpretation of tongues &c.
We believe the bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God.
We believe all that God has revealed, all that he does now reveal, and we be [p. 709]lieve that he will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the kingdom of God.
We believe in the literal of Israel and in the restoration of the Ten Tribes. That will be built upon this continent. That Christ will reign personally upon the earth, and that the earth will be renewed and receive its paradasaic glory.
We claim the privilege of worshipping Almighty God according to the dictates of our conscience, and allow all men the same privilege let them worship how, where, or what they may.
We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and magistrates, in obeying, honoring and sustaining the law.
We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous, and in doing good to all men; indeed we may say that we follow the admonition of Paul “we believe all things we hope all things,” we have endured many things and hope to be able to endure all things. If there is any thing virtuous, lovely, or of good report or praise worthy we seek after these things. Respectfully &c.,
JOSEPH SMITH.
 
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TIMES AND SEASONS.
CITY OF ,
TUESDAY, MARCH 15 [1], 1842.
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Editorial Note
In the first editorial passage, JS publicly announced his new role as editor of the Times and Seasons to the newspaper’s readership.

TO SUBSCRIBERS.
☞This paper commences my editorial career, I alone stand responsible for it, and shall do for all papers having my signature henceforward. I am not responsible for the publication, or arrangement of the former paper; the matter did not come under my supervision.
JOSEPH SMITH.
 
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Editorial Note
The second editorial passage relates to a 26 January 1842 article printed in the New-York Tribune that suggested that the paymaster of the militia had absconded with money earmarked for the militiamen who had fought in the 1838 Mormon War. Commenting on this article, the editor of the Times and Seasons inveighed against the militia and citizens of Missouri for their role in killing church members at , Caldwell County, Missouri, in 1838 and forcing thousands of to leave the state in 1839.

HONOR AMONG THIEVES.
We extract the following from the ‘New York Tribune.’
The Paymaster of the Militia, called out to put down the Mormons, some two years since, was supplied with money some time since and started for Western , but has not yet arrived there. It is feared that he has taken the ‘Saline slope.’
We are not suprised that persons who could wantonly, barbarously, and without the shadow of law, drive fifteen thousand men, women and children from their homes, should have among them a man who was so lost to every sense of justice, as to run away with the wages for this infamous deed: it is not very difficult for men who can blow out the brains of children; who can shoot down, and hew to pieces our ancient veterans, who fought in the defence of our country, and delivered it from the oppressor’s grasp; who could deliberately, and in cold blood, murder men, and rob them of their boots, watches, &c. and whilst they were yet weltering in their blood and grappling with death, and then proceed to rob their widowed houses. Men who can deliberately do this, and steal near all the horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, and property of a whole community, and drive them from their homes en-masse, in an inclement season of the year, will not find many qualms of conscience in stealing the pay of his brother theives, and taking the ‘saline slope.’
The very idea of government paying these men for their bloody deeds, must cause the sons of liberty to blush, and to hang their harps upon the willow; and make the blood of every patriot run chill. The proceedings of that have been so barbarous, and inhuman, that our indignation is aroused when we reflect upon the scene.
We are here reminded of one of the patriotic deeds of the gove[r]nment of that , who, after they had robbed us of every thing we had in the world, and taken from us many hundred thousand dollars worth of property, had their sympathies so far touched, (, their good name,) that they voted two thousand dollars for the relief of the ‘suffering Mormons,’ and choosing two or three of her noblest sons, to carry their heavenly boon, these angels of salvation came in the plenitude of their mercy, and in the dignity of their office, to . To do what? to feed their hungry, and clothe their naked with the $2000? verily nay! but to go into and steal the Mormon’s hogs (which they were prohibited themselves from obtaining, under penalty of death,) to distribute among the destitute, and to sell where they could obtain the money. These hogs, thus obtained were shot down in their blood, and not otherwise bled; they were filthy to a degree.— These, the Mormons’ own hogs, and a very few goods, the sweepings of an old store in , were what these patriotic and noble minded men gave to the ‘poor Mormons,’ and circulated to the world how sympathic, benevolent, kind and merciful the Legislature of the State of was, in giving two thousand dollars to the ‘suffering Mormons.’ Surely, ‘the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel.’ [p. 710]
 
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Editorial Note
In the third editorial passage, JS commented on an article originally printed in the London Dispatch in late 1841 related to the death of English member Elizabeth Morgan. Morgan and her husband, Benjamin Morgan, were among the earliest Londoners to join the church during the ’s second mission to , which went from 1839 to 1841. The Morgan family resided in St. Luke’s parish, , and boarded several church missionaries, including , who was living with them when Elizabeth Morgan passed away on 28 October 1841. According to the Dispatch, local authorities investigated the circumstances surrounding her death because she had declined professional medical treatment, a choice that the paper’s editors and others directly attributed to her religious beliefs.
While JS and other church members believed that they could be healed through various religious rituals, in this editorial the editor emphatically stated that the church did not prohibit its members from receiving medical aid. Preferences for healing treatments varied from person to person, but Latter-day Saints employed contemporary medical techniques, as well as traditional folk remedies, that were influenced by the medical knowledge and practices of American society during the antebellum era. In the early 1840s modern medical practices were still in their infancy. While a few elite American doctors received medical training in Europe or at select universities on the East Coast, most medical practitioners in the received little formal education aside from a short period of apprenticeship. Little was understood about the vectors of disease, and many practitioners of conventional, or “heroic,” medicine continued to treat illnesses in patients’ homes through archaic and often harmful medical practices such as bloodletting or calomel purges. In response to the methods of heroic physicians, in the 1820s and 1830s Samuel Thomson, a self-taught herbalist, popularized an alternative system of treating patients referred to as botanic medicine. Thomson’s methods were embraced by some physicians in the United States and , including by some Latter-day Saint doctors, such as , , and , although Latter-day Saints in and relied on both heroic and botanic medicine.
Like many other editorial pieces, this editorial tried to counter perceived falsehoods about Latter-day Saint belief and practice that were circulating in public discourse. Commenting on the Dispatch’s report, JS criticized the underlying assumption that Morgan’s religious beliefs, as well as “improper treatment by unqualified persons,” were somehow responsible for her death. JS also defended Morgan’s right to refuse medical aid and the church’s belief in divine healing.

THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.
extract from the “london despatch.”
On Wednesday an investigation was gone into before Mr. Baker, the coroner, at the Royal Oak, Galway-street, St. Luke’s, on the body of Elizabeth Morgan, aged 55 years, whose death was alleged to have been caused through improper treatment by unqualified persons. Maria Watkins, of 31, Cross-street, Islington, said she had known the deceased about 12 months. For some time past she had suffered from a spasmodic affection, and on Tuesday week last witness was sent for to attend her. Witness found her very ill, but no medical gentleman was called in, it being against the religious tenets of the sect to which the deceased belonged to do so. The sect to which she belonged styled themselves “,” their place of meeting being in Castle-street, Cow-cross. They dated their origin from the Apostles, and treated their sick according to the following text, taken from the last chapter of the Epistle of St. James: “If there be any illness amongst you ye shall call for the of the Church, and annoint yourselves with oil in the name of the Lord.” She (witness) had known cases of healing under such circumstances, but the deceased sank and died on Saturday last. Mary Ann Albin, Spencer-place, Goswell-road, wife of one of the elders of this foolish sect, said she was called to see the deceased on Tuesday morning, and from her appearance thought she was suffering from inflammation of the bowels. No surgeon was sent for. Witness administered some “sage tea with Cayenne pepper” in it; leeches and other remedies were also applied. Every thing was prayed over before it was given. The Coroner said the remedy appeared to him to be worse than the disease, and he hardly knew how to deal with the case, as he had his doubts whether it was not one of manslaughter. In his opinion the case was not strong enough to warrant a verdict of manslaughter being returned, but he trusted the publication of it in the papers would act as a caution to the members of this strange sect, and that they would see the necessity of calling in medical aid. The jury, after some deliberation returned a verdict of “Natural death,” with a hope that the present inquiry would act as a caution to that body how they acted in such cases for the future.
If we were not somewhat conversant with the follies and absurdity of men who profess to regulate religious affairs, and to give tone and energy to the multifarious creeds that are now extant, we could scarcely have believed that any men professing any degree of intelligence, or holding any office of importance, could be found to give birth unto, be connected with, or bear witness of such a bundle of nonsense; such sheer ignorance, and profound folly, as is manifested in the above article. But as it is published by the ‘London Despatch,’ a journal that professes to rank among the foremost of the British Empire, and in other papers of importance in the professed metropolis of the world, as it has emanated from the emporium of learning, science, and divinity; the professed fountain of all true intelligence, the seat of bible societies, missionary societies, and tract societies; the place where nobles are instructed and kings learn wisdom, we of course must notice it. What then is the important thing that has attracted the attention of nearly all editors in the city of ? that has excited the deep interest, and careful investigation of a learned jury, and a more profoundly learned coroner? something solemn, deep, and awful, something that must be published in the public journals of the day, and be heralded to all the world. Therefore listen ye nations and give ear ye kings of the earth, let all the world attend with respectful deference, for be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, that “ELIZABETH MORGAN, AGED 55 YEARS,” IS DEAD. Oh, Tempore!!! Oh Mores!!!! Yes the solemn fact is announced by the “London Despatch”—she is dead—but what gives deep interest to the fact and adds solemnity to the scene is that she died a “natural death!!!!![”] she was not murdered in cold blood; she was not poisoned, nor drowned, nor burned to death, she did not die in a mad-house, nor cut her throat; neither had she the privilege of being killed throught the administration of the learned medical faculty, not through the nostrums of the more learned, but less popular Thompson; it was her fate to die a natural death! and therefore the learned coroner “trusted the publication of it in the papers would act as a caution to the members of this strange sect, and that they would see the necessity of calling in medical aid.” Therefore ye pay attention and live forever; for it would seem by this that the inhabitants of the city of never die, because they have abundance of “medical aid” or if they do die [p. 711] they are assisted by the faculty to die, they do not die a natural death—for the corner thought it necessary to warn this “foolish sect” lest they should be guilty of dying a natural death and no doubt (according to the statement of the coroner) if Elizabeth Morgan had still remained a citizen of and not have joined that “strange sect” (who die naturally) but that she would either have lived forever or have had the privilege of dying an unnatural death through the assistance of medical aid.
But the are a “strange sect” a “foolish sect” but why so? “they dated their origin from the apostles, and treated their sick according to the following text taken from the last chapter of the epistle of St. James: ‘If there be any illness (is any sick) among you ye shall (let him) call for the of the church, and annoint yourselves with oil in the name of the Lord,’ -[and let them pray over him, annointing him with oil in the name of the Lord.”]- The coroner seems to be ignorant of the doctrines of the Latter-Day Saints, or he never would have stated that they “dated their origin from the apostles.” We believe in apostolic religion, but we do not date our origin from them—we believe that the religious world have all become corrupt long ago, and that it needed a revelation from heaven to restore apostolic religion, and that we have had such a communication: but we do not profess to have descended lineally from them. The learned coroner seems also to be ignorant of his bible, or he would have quoted the above passage a little more correctly than he has done. Respecting its being contrary to our religious tenets to employ “medical aid” we would remark that it is unqualifiedly false, and that we have no tenets prohibiting any such thing, but we think that sister Morgan had as much right to refuse medical aid and die a natural death if she thought proper, as a Methodist, Presbyterian, Quaker, Univeralist, or any other person: and that the coroner had no right to hinder her, nor to try other people for allowing her to do so.
But the people prayed for her “according to the text in St. James” ‘if any are sick &c.’ The thing has at last come out; the coroner did not think it right to follow the directions of “St. James,” for he thinks them a “strange sect” a “foolish sect,” and admonishes them to beware of such conduct, from which we must naturally infer that the coroner does not believe the epistle of James, nor do any of the sects in , -[for his profession must make him generally acquainted with the sects]- and and he thinks this is a ‘strange’ sect because they do, and that they are very ‘foolish’ for believing it. A man may be a Dunkard, a Shaker, a Methodist, a Southcatonian, a Presbyterian, or a Wilkinsonian; he may dance, or shake, or whirl around on his heel, or rend the heavens with his shouts, or sit still and say nothing: he may profess to be a mortal, or an immortal man; he may do any thing that is unscriptural, and it will be orthodox but to believe the bible, and to practice its precepts is ‘foolish and strange’ to this enlightened and Christian coroner, and to the inhabitants of . But that they die after this administration is singular. The apostles however and the ancient churches used to administer in this ordinance, and yet they died. It is well for them that they did not live in the city of , the seat of religion, and science, or the pious coroner and his coadjutors would have tried these ungodly men for practising contrary to their religion, and would have warned all the sect against their impositions and follies.
 
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COMMUNICATIONS
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LETTER FROM ELDER .
, Nov. 10, 1841
Dear Sir,—I received your letter directed from , which I answered soon after its reception. I have also received another from you written at , which I read last Sunday week to a large congregation of Saints; they were extremely gratified with its contents, and much delighted in hearing from one who had labored so hard to plant the standard of in this dark and benighted . I forwarded it to , for publication in the ‘Star.’
The ‘stone of the mountain,’ which you set to rolling in , (I am thankful to the Most High in being able to say,) has not yet ceased moving, but is daily becoming more rapid and powerful in its revolutions. It has already gathered round its holy shrine, despite of opposing powers, about one hundred and forty sons and daughters of Zion. Every thing in relation to the generally goes on prosperously; the power of God is beginning to manifest itself in a wonderful manner among the Saints; remarkable diseases have been healed through the medium of the , and many of the Saints have had open visions, which are of that glorious nature as to cause their hearts to rejoice, and to give glory to the Lord God of Zion. [p. 712]
The books that you left here I found to be very useful in circulating our appointments, and in spreading information concerning our doctrines, among the people. We have left Mr. Barret’s Academy, and have obtained a commodious chapel to worship in. . . . . We have proven the advice of and to be very salutary to us, and have endeavored to follow it on all occasions. . . .
I am sorry to be under the painful necessity of having to communicate the intelligence of the death of our beloved sister, E[lizabeth] Morgan; she died of a complaint with which she had been afflicted many years; the whole mourn her loss, and tears of grief are seen filling the eyes, not only of a bereaved husband and children, but of the Saints in general, and a large circle of friends by whom she was known and beloved. It is unnecessary for me to dwell upon her virtues, or to recount her acts of kindness and benevolence to you, when you first came to this to raise the standard of truth: you found a home with her: you were always made welcome at the fire-side and table of deacon Morgan and his wife, our deceased sister. From that time forth she was your friend, till she became a Saint, since which time she has been an ornament to society, and a pattern of righteousness, and she died as she lived, the friend of virtue, of truth, and of God; and manifested to an astonishing degree a strong and unshaken assurance of a glory, which caused our hearts to rejoice, and was a subject of deep interest to many of her worldly friends. In her dying moments she requested me to inform you that she blessed the day that the came to her house, and blessed the hour in which she was by you.
She refused to have her doctor attend her, in consequence of which she was refused a burial until a Coroner’s Inquest was called, and held over her. In the inquest the jury sought very industriously to bring us in guilty of “manslaughter,” but finally decided that the evidence for that purpose was not quite strong enough; so you see that we very fortunately escaped Newgate this time, but how we shall fare the next time we are ignorant of, and careless about. If the work of God be furthered we will content ourselves in being used as instruments in any way that the Lord may see proper, and say amen to his decisions, whether free, or bound in chains, or in the company of kings and nobles. An account of the inquest has been published by most of the Journals. I enclose with this communication an article upon this subject, which I have taken from the “Despatch,” one of the most popular periodicals in .
After this inquest was held, I delivered sister Morgan’s funeral sermon. The chapel was crowded to excess, and I have not had a more attentive congregation while in . There were many present, who, if they had been prepared with change of clothes, would have been baptized as soon as I had closed my discourse, although they had entered the chapel with minds darkened by false reports.
The Tower of London now lays low in ashes; it was burned down about a week since.
All the Saints send their love to you.
Yours, in the e.
.
To .
 
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For the Times and Seasons.
OBITUARY.
It is with deep regret that we announce the death of our highly esteemed and worthy sister, Laura [Clark] Phelps, consort of Morris Phelps, who departed this life Feb. 2d, in the 36th year of her age. She was warned of her approaching dissolution, and desired her companion to have her remains conveyed to , and there be interred with her old tried friends, who, with her, had passed through many trials, and afflictions, and had their days shortened by the unparallelled cruelties which had been heaped upon them. She was one of the first who embraced the gospel, consequently suffered much persecution from her friends; but by leaving them, and also her father’s family, to be with the Saints, she manifested to the world that no sacrifice was too great for her to make for the cause which she had espoused. She was one of the number driven from , in 1833, at which time she suffered many privations, but her mind was calm and unruffled, for she had a firm reliance on Him whose arm is able to save all who put their trust in Him. During our persecutions in in ’39, she endeared herself to many of her friends by her acts of kindness, and in many instances her con [p. 713]duct was truly heroic. When my life was sought at , and my brethren in prison had great anxiety on my account, she interceded with my pursuers, who were nearly thirty in number, and actually convinced them that I was another person, altogether, and the pursuit was stopped. She, afterwards, in company with her brother, left her home in , together with her tender offspring, and traveled a distance of nearly two hundred miles on horseback, to assist in the deliverance of her companion, or devise means whereby he and his brethren might make their escape from Prison; which thing was effected, and she left among a savage horde to suffer such abuses as they saw fit to inflict upon her, but through the goodness of God she was delivered from their hands and returned in peace to the bosom of her family and friends. Much might be said of the character of our deceased friend, but our paper will not permit us to be lengthy in our eulogies on the dead. We have penned the above acts to be handed down to future generations as a memorial of her, for her faith, her patience, and her integrity to her friends and her religion.
.
 
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For the Times and Seasons.
THE COMING OF CHRIST.
The coming of Christ is a subject that the ancients have contemplated with great emotion; Isaiah having a view of this event, realized a portion of its benefit for says he, “Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful Counsellor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace: Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end.—” Jeremiah gazing upon the unparalleled blessings that should accrue to the human family through the incarnation of the son of God, breaks forth in rapturous accents and exclaims, “This is his name whereby he shall be called, The Lord our righteousness.” David looking down the stream of time, got his eye upon this noble event; and feeling its benefit applied to his heart, tunes the lyre and in seraphic notes he chants his praise. Moses beheld the coming of Christ, and saw a striking similarity, and said unto his people, “A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me.” Abraham by faith beheld the son of God vailed in human form, and rejoiced to see it. In the fulness of time Christ came, and then every symbol was abolished by its representative; every shadow is lost in its respective substance—every prediction meets with its fulfilment.—And hecatombs no longer struggle upon the Jewish altars, while yielding their blood, as a type of better things.
Now the long, long looked for period at last arrives; and the auspicious morn, is hailed by a countless throng of angels, one of which announces to the watching shepherd, “Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.—” A star appeared in the east, and its meaning was understood by the Magi, who prosecuted their journey over dreary mountains, sandy deserts, and barren plains, in pursuit of the new born king; till at length coming to Bethlehem, “entering the house they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts, gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.” In this kind act they acknowledged this infant Prophet, Priest and King.—Simeon was a man who waited for the consolation of Israel: “and it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord, Christ:” And beholding that promise fulfilled—“took the child in his arms,” and in a poetical strain uttered words of prayer and praise.—“Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word: For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou has prepared before the face of all people; a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.” There was one Philip who desired to see the days of the son of man, who after he had seen Jesus came to Nathanael and said unto him, “We have found him, of whom Moses in the Law, and the Prophet did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” Now we see him passing through the world as a “man of sorrows and acquainted with grief.—” His journey was that of benevolence, and his labour that of love: until he offered himself a vicarious sacrifice—was numbered with [p. 714] the transgressors, and “made his grave with the rich;” until the dawn of the third day, when like a mighty conqueror he rose from the tomb, and after “going in and out for the space of forty days, ascended up on high, led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men: and ever lives to make intercession for us.”
(To be concluded in our next.)
 
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Joseph Smith,
Dear sir:—I feel anxious to express my feelings, concerning the business transactions between the and myself;—as it is well known to many, that , as for the church, purchased my farm while I was living in , Chester co. Pa, and many supposed or pretended to suppose, I would get nothing in return;—but I wish to say to all my old friends and enemies in , through the medium of the “Times and Seasons,”—-[which I rejoice you now have the control of,]- that I have received my pay in full from the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, through yourself, sir, as their Trustee in Trust, according to the original contract; and that from my acquaintance with yourself, and those brethren who are assisting you in the great and increasing business of the church, I have the fullest confidence in all the transactions of the church, and I request those papers in who published concerning my sale and loss, with such bitter lamentations to publish this also. I am, sir, your brother and well wisher,
.
, Feb. 28, 1842.
 
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TO THE BRETHREN IN , GREETING:—
It is highly important, for the forwarding of the , that an equal distribution of labor should be made, in relation to time; as a superabundance of hands one week, and none the next, tends to retard the progress of the work; therefore, every brother is requested to be particular to labor on the day set apart for the same, in his ward; and to remember that he that sows sparingly shall also reap sparingly,—so that if the brethren want a plentiful harvest, they will do well to be at the place of labor in good season in the morning, bringing all necessary tools, according to their occupation; and those who have teams bring them also, unless otherwise advised by the temple committee.
Should any one be detained from his labor by unavoidable circumstances, on the day appointed, let him labor the next day, or the first day possible.
N. B.—The captains of the respective wards are particularly requested to be at the place of labor on their respective days, and keep an accurate account of each man’s work, and be ready to exhibit a list of the same when called for.
The heart of the trustee is daily made to rejoice in the good feelings of the brethren, made manifest in their exertion to carry forward the work of the Lord, and rear his ; and it is hoped that neither planting, sowing or reaping will hereafter be made to interfere with the regulations hinted at above.
JOSEPH SMITH.
Trustee in Trust.
 
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TEMPLE FRIENDS.
This day a certificate of deposite of $145, in the Auburn Bank, was received at this office, and passed to the credit of the twelve individuals of West Niles, named in the accompanying letter of Wm. Van Orden, in the Book of the Law of the Lord, page 83, with their respective items attached to the individual names, as specified in the schedule.
Such receipts can never come amiss, but this arrived at a moment when it will prove peculiarly useful, as we knew not what course to pursue to raise that amount of cash, which could not be dispensed with without immense loss, or sacrifice of the property of the .
,
Temple Recorder.
Recorder’s Office, Feb. 21, 1842.
We would also say to all the churches, that in as much as they want the blessings of God and Angels, as also the church of Jesus Christ, and wish to see it spread and prosper through the world and built up and truth and righteousness prevail, let all the different of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in all the world, call meetings in their respective places and tithe themselves and send up to this place to the Trustee in Trust, so that his hands may be loosed and the go on, and other works be done, such as the new translation of the bible, and the record of Father Abraham published to the world. [p. 715]
Beloved Brethren, we as the messengers of the Lord feel to call upon you to help roll on the great and mighty work—it is our duty so to do and it is your reasonable service—and the Lord will bless you in so doing. We subscribe ourselves your humble servants and standard bearers to the world.
, President.
, Clerk of the .
 
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NOTICE.
There will be a general of the and members of the , held at the of said Church, on the 6th day of April, 1842. The members of adjacent conferences are invited to attend.
By order of the President,
, Clerk.
 
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AN ORDINANCE REGULATING AUCTIONS IN THE CITY OF .
Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of , That no person or persons whatsoever shall, after the publication of this act, sell or expose to sale by way of vendue, or auction, any property, real or personal, within the city of , unless such person or persons shall reside within the said city, and first obtain a licence for the purpose from the Mayor, for which such person or persons shall pay to the corporation, not exceeding one hundred dollars, and give bond to the Mayor and Council, with two good securities, in the sum of one thousand dollars, for the honest and due performance of all the duties required by law.
Sec.2. That if any person or persons shall be found selling or disposing of any property real or personal, within the city of , by way of vendue, or auction, without having obtained such license, and given such security, as aforesaid, such person or persons so offending, and being thereof lawfully convicted, shall forfeit and pay to the corporation, the sum of twenty five dollars for every lot which he or they shall have so sold.
Sec.3. That the auctioneer or auctioneers licensed as aforesaid, shall receive all articles which he or they shall be required to sell at auction, giving his or their receipt for the same, if reqired, and within ten days after any sale made, shall deliver a fair account of the same, and pay the amount thereof to the person or persons entitled thereto, deducting therefrom, the fees and commissions hereafter allowed, that is to say, on the amount of the sale of personal property of every description, a commission of five per cent. except public securities, and bank or other incorporated stocks, respecting which a different rate is hereinafter prescribed, and on the amount of sale of real estate, public securities and bank or other incorporated stocks, two per cent. on the first two hundred dollars, and one per cent. on the next one thousand three hundred dollars; and if the amount of sales shall exceed fifteen hundred dollars, then one fourth of one per cent. on such excess; and when the said auctioneer or auctioneers shall let by auction any real property, on ground rent, he or they shall be entitled to receive a commission on a sum equal to ten years amount of such rent; and in all cases when any article shall be actually exposed to sale, which shall not be sold, by reason of its not producing the price at which it may be limited, it shall be lawful for the auctioneer or auctioneers to demand and receive, on the sum at which such article shall have been struck off, one fourth of the commission which he or they would have been entitled to receive, had it been actually sold; and every auctioneer who shall demand or receive any fees or commissions not allowed by law, or greater fees or commissions than are so allowed, shall forfeit four times the amount of fees and commissions so demanded or received, to the use of the person or persons on whom such demand shall be made, or from whom such fees or commissions shall be received: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent any auctioneer from charging and receiving a reasonable compensation for extra trouble for services rendered.
Sec. 4, That no person or persons, licensed as aforesaid, shall receive goods for sale, of any servant or minor, unless accompanied by a certificate from the owner or owners thereof, nor expose to public sale any real or personal property, without first making out in writing, and signing, and publicly reading the conditions of sale, nor without advertising the property intended for sale, and the time and place of sale in a newspaper, or by posting up notices in three public places [p. 716] in the city; and also giving notice of the same by a crier and the ringing of a bell.
Sec. 5. That no auctioneer or auctioneers shall, either directly or indirectly, purchase at auction any article or articles put up to sale by him or them, except for his or their own use, and not to sell again, under a penalty of twenty five dollars, for every such offence.
Sec. 6. That no auctioneer or auctioneers shall sell by auction dry goods or groceries, in lots or parcels of less value than five dollars, or liquors of any kind in less quantities than five gallons, under the penalty of five dollars for every offence.
Sec. 7. That in no case where two or more persons shall take out a joint license as auctioneers, shall it be lawful for any of them, under color thereof, to hold separate auctions, or to sell at more than one place at one and the same time; but the said license shall be construed to confer no greater privilege or authority than if the same were granted to a single person; and that if any of the persons who may have taken out a joint license as aforesaid shall violate this provision, he or they shall forfeit and pay the same penalty for every offence, as is imposed on any person who shall sell as an auctioneer, without having taken out a license, and given security, as herein before required.
Sec. 8. That from and after the passage of this act, there shall be levied and paid to this Corporation, a duty on the amount of all sales at auction by the auctioneers licensed pursuant to the laws thereof, at the following rates, that is to say: upon all real estate, public securities, bank and other incorporated stocks, at the rate of one fourth of one per cent.; upon all watches, jewelry, cutlery, perfumery, and stationery, at the rate of five per cent.; and upon all other goods, articles, or things, of whatever sort or kind, whether in the raw or manufactured state, at the rate of one per cent., except on sales of any property at auction, made under any order, decree, sentence, or judgment of any court of the , or of any justice of the peace, or by virtue of any distress for rent. all of which are hereby exempted from the duties imposed by this act.
Sec.9. That it shall be incumbent on every auctioneer, licensed as aforesaid, to deduct from the proceeds of all sales made by him, the duties herein before directed to be levied, and to pay over the same to the Treasurer of this Corporation, for its use and benefit, once in every three months; and in accounting for such duties, it shall also be incumbent on every such auctioneer to make his return under the solemn sanction of an oath or affirmation, and to exhibit to the Treasurer aforesaid, whenever required by him, the books of sales of such auctioneer, in order to enable the Treasurer to ascertain the correctness of the returns aforesaid; and in case any such auctioneer shall fail strictly to perform the duties hereby imposed on him, or to account accurately for, and pay over, as above prescribed, the revenue payable to this corporation on sales at auction by him, or to exhibit his books, as aforesaid, he shall forfeit his license, and be, moreover, liable to a penalty of fifty dollars, and to a further penalty of twenty dollars for every day which shall elapse after a default shall be made in payment of the said duties, or in rendering his returns, or in exhibiting his books, agreeably to this section, until he shall comply with the directions it contains; and all penalties accruing under it shall be for the sole use and benefit of this corporation.
Sec. 10. That in case any person or persons who shall have become the surety or sureties for the faithful perform.ance of the duties of any auctioneer or auctioneers, licensed as aforesaid, shall die, remove from the city of , or become insolvent, the Mayor shall, and he is hereby authorized and empowered, to demand other satisfactory security or securities, for the due performance of such duties; and in case such satisfactory security or securities shall not be given within eight days, the license taken out by such auctioneer or auctioneers shall thenceforth become, and is hereby declared to be, null and void, to all intents and purposes as if the same had never been granted; and whenever the Mayor shall have been informed that the license of any auctioneer or auctioneers shall have expired, or that he or they shall have failed to comply with the requisitions of the law, so that such license be no longer in force, the Mayor shall, at the expiration of eight days, give public notice thereof.
Sec.11. That the auctioneer or auctioneers licensed as aforesaid, shall constantly [p. 717] keep a fair copy of this law in some conspicuous place in his or their auction room, for the inspection of the public; and if he or they shall fail so to do, he or they shall forfeit and pay a penalty of twenty dollars.
Passed—January 17 [February 12], 1842.
, Mayor.
, Recorder.
 
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, Feb. 22, A. D. 1842.
Office of the Lieutenant General.
The officers of my staff are required to assemble at my residence, on Friday, the 11th day of March, 1842, at 10 o’clock A. M. armed and equipped according to law.
JOSEPH SMITH,
Lieutenant General.
’s Office, Nauvoo Legion,
City of , Feb. 25, A. D. 1842.
My staff, accompanied by the band, is required to rendezvous, at my quarters, on Friday, the 11th day of March, proximo, at 10 o’clock, A. M., armed and equipped as the law directs.
,
Major General.
Frst Cohort, Nauvoo Legion,
Feb. 27, A. D. 1842.
All the battalions of the 1st Cohort, residing within the Precinct, are required to assemble for battalion parade, at the usual place of rendezvous, on Friday, the 11th day of March, at 10 o’clock A. M.—all officers, and troops will take notice and govern themselves accordingly. My staff will appear at my residence at the same hour.
,
Brigadier General, & Brev. Maj. Gen.
Second Cohort, Nauvoo Legion,
Feb. 27, A. D. 1842.
The officers and privates, of the 2d Cohort, are required to rendezvous, for battalion parade, at the usual place in this , on Friday, the 11th day of March, at 10 o’clock, A. M.—all persons concerned, therefore, will take notice, and govern themselves accordingly. My staff will congregate at my residence, at the same hour.
,
Brigadier General.
 
——————————
MARRIED—In this , on Wednesday, the 23d ult. Mr. William L. Hide, to Miss Elizabeth H. Bullard.
DIED—In this , near , on the 22d of Feb. last, Mrs. Emeline Leyland, wife of Benjamin Leyland, aged 14 years and 8 months. Sister Leyland died strong in the faith of the , and wished to have her bones laid with the saints.
 
——————————
Poetry.
——————————
For the Times and Seasons.
ONE OF TIME’S CHANGES.
Some things have chang’d from what they were
When all the fairest of the fair;
Whom Fame has rank’d among the ‘beauties;’
Were skillful in domestic duties.
 
Our modern Misses scarce believe
That ladies us’d to spin and weave;
Or, that gay Princesses, of yore,
Wrought the righ garments, Princes wore.
 
Since Fashion has with Folly met,
The stars of Industry have set—
Pleasure and Profit have disbanded,
And Labor, like grim Want, is branded.
 
’Tis strange as foolish, but ’tis got so
Who are not idle, would be thought so;
And ladies too, have grown so common,
No wonder if they plunder Mammon!
 
Now who, beneath proud Fashion’s peal,
Will dare draw music from the wheel,
Or regulate the kitchen, when
stops, to wield the pen?
.
 
——————————

Editorial Note
In the fourth and final editorial passage from the 1 March 1842 issue of the Times and Seasons, JS informed readers that the printing establishment’s stock of books and paper had been moved to a mercantile he recently opened in Nauvoo. JS’s store formally opened for business on 5 January 1842. JS acquired the printing establishment—which included a printing press, a stereotype foundry, a bookbindery, paper, and other supplies—from on 4 February 1842.

REMOVAL.
THE BOOKS AND STATIONARY of this establishment have been removed to the brick kept by Joseph Smith, on Water Street.
 
——————————
The Times and Seasons,
is edited by
Joseph Smith.
Printed and published about the first and fifteenth of every month, on the corner of Water and Bain Streets, , Hancock County, Illinois, by
JOSEPH SMITH.
TERMS.—Two Dollars per annum, payable in all cases in advance. Any person procuring five new subscribers, and forwarding us Ten Dollars current money, shall receive one volume gratis. All letters must be addressed to Joseph Smith, publisher, post paid, or they will not receive attention. [p. 718]

Footnotes

  1. 1

    TEXT: A “u” was accidentally set instead of an “n”.  

  2. 2

    TEXT: An ink spot obscures the letter, but the “r” is visible in the original.  

  3. 3

    Among the items printed in the 15 February issue of the Times and Seasons was a notice of marriage between Gilbert Rolfe and Eliza Jane Bates. Following the notice, a newspaper employee included a statement of congratulation laced with printer’s puns and suggestive language. In a letter to JS, typesetter Lyman O. Littlefield assumed responsibility for authoring the notice, stating, “You knew nothing of its existence until that edition had been ‘worked off’ and circulated—the proof sheet not being examined by you.” Robinson also confirmed that the 15 February installment “went to press without his [JS’s] personal inspection.” (Marriage Notice, Times and Seasons, 15 Feb. 1842, 3:701; Letter from Lyman O. Littlefield, 14 Mar. 1842; Ebenezer Robinson, “To the Public,” Times and Seasons, 15 Mar. 1842, 3:729.)  

  4. 4

    News Item, New-York Tribune (New York City), 26 Jan. 1842, [2].  

    New-York Tribune. New York City. 1841–1842.

  5. 5

    The paymaster of the Missouri militia was Major Horner, a veteran of the War of 1812. (Journal of the Senate, of the State of Missouri, 26 Jan. 1843, 258–259; History of Boone County, Missouri, 885; Waller, History of Randolph County Missouri, 387.)  

    Journal, of the Senate, of the State of Missouri, at the First Session of the Tenth General Assembly, Begun and Held at the City of Jefferson, On Monday, the Nineteenth Day of November, in the Year of Our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Eight. Jefferson City, MO: Calvin Gunn, 1839.

    History of Boone County, Missouri. Written and Compiled From the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: Western Historical Co., 1882.

    Waller, Alexander H. History of Randolph County, Missouri. Topeka, KS: Historical Publishing Company, 1920.

  6. 6

    The expression was “Sabine slope” not “Saline slope.” According to a nineteenth-century dictionary of American expressions, one meaning of the word slope was “to run away.” Contemporary uses of “Sabine slope” suggest that the expression was used to describe the action of absconding from moral or financial obligations. Despite the suspicion the New-York Tribune expressed, there is no evidence that the paymaster, Major Horner, engaged in any financial improprieties. (“Slope,” in Bartlett, Dictionary of Americanisms, 310; “Commercial and Money Matters,” New-York Daily Tribune [New York City], 21 Oct. 1842, [3]; “Daniel Webster,” Weekly Globe [Washington DC], 1 Oct. 1842, 681; “Rail Road Management—the Bank Clique—Anecdote of a Financial Operation,” New York Herald [New York City], 19 Jan. 1842, [2].)  

    Bartlett, John Russell. Dictionary of Americanisms: A Glossary of Words and Phrases, Usually Regarded as Peculiar to the United States. New York: Bartlett and Welford, 1848.

    New-York Daily Tribune. New York City. 1841–1924.

    Weekly Globe. Washington DC. 1830–1843.

    New York Herald. New York City. 1835–1924.

  7. 7

    In the years after the forced expulsion of the Latter-day Saints from Missouri, church leaders variously estimated the number of members who had lived in the state; the number was likely between eight thousand and ten thousand. (Letter to Isaac Galland, 22 Mar. 1839; Memorial to the United States Senate and House of Representatives, ca. 30 Oct. 1839–27 Jan. 1840; Council of Fifty, “Record,” 4 Mar. 1845; Leonard, Nauvoo, 31, 671n33; LeSueur, 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, 35–36.)  

    Leonard, Glen M. Nauvoo: A Place of Peace, a People of Promise. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book; Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 2002.

    LeSueur, Stephen C. The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1987.

  8. 8

    This is likely a reference to the murder of Sardius Smith by vigilantes near the Hawn’s Mill settlement in Caldwell County, Missouri, on 3 October 1838. According to a firsthand account of the massacre written by Latter-day Saint Joseph Young, one of the attackers killed nine-year-old Sardius with a close-range rifle shot to the head. (Greene, Facts relative to the Expulsion, 23.)  

    Greene, John P. Facts Relative to the Expulsion of the Mormons or Latter Day Saints, from the State of Missouri, under the “Exterminating Order.” By John P. Greene, an Authorized Representative of the Mormons. Cincinnati: R. P. Brooks, 1839.

  9. 9

    This is likely a reference to the murder of Thomas McBride at the Hawn’s Mill settlement in 1838. One survivor, Amanda Barnes Smith, described McBride as an “old white headed Revalutioner [Revolutioner],” though he was born in 1776. Another survivor later related how vigilantes shot McBride with a gun and mutilated him with a corn cutter. (Baugh, “Rare Account of the Haun’s Mill Massacre,” 166; Amanda Barnes Smith, Statement, 18 Apr. 1839, Historian’s Office, JS History Documents, ca. 1839–1860, CHL.)  

    Baugh, Alexander L. “A Rare Account of the Haun’s Mill Massacre: The Reminiscence of Willard Gilbert Smith.” Mormon Historical Studies 8 (2007): 165–171.

    Historian’s Office. Joseph Smith History Documents, 1839–1860. CHL. CR 100 396.

  10. 10

    A few survivors reported that after the attack at Hawn’s Mill, vigilantes looted houses, wagons, and tents, stealing clothing from both the deceased and survivors. (Greene, Facts relative to the Expulsion, 24; Amanda Barnes Smith, Statement, 18 Apr. 1839, Historian’s Office, JS History Documents, ca. 1839–1860, CHL.)  

    Greene, John P. Facts Relative to the Expulsion of the Mormons or Latter Day Saints, from the State of Missouri, under the “Exterminating Order.” By John P. Greene, an Authorized Representative of the Mormons. Cincinnati: R. P. Brooks, 1839.

    Historian’s Office. Joseph Smith History Documents, 1839–1860. CHL. CR 100 396.

  11. 11

    In an 1839 petition to the Missouri legislature, church members asserted that after they had surrendered to militiamen in Far West, Missouri, the soldiers proceeded to plunder and burn building materials and steal or kill cattle, sheep, and hogs. (Greene, Facts relative to the Expulsion, 13–14.)  

    Greene, John P. Facts Relative to the Expulsion of the Mormons or Latter Day Saints, from the State of Missouri, under the “Exterminating Order.” By John P. Greene, an Authorized Representative of the Mormons. Cincinnati: R. P. Brooks, 1839.

  12. 12

    The Latter-day Saints were forced to leave the state during the winter. (Hartley, “Almost Too Intolerable a Burthen,” 6–40.)  

    Hartley, William G. “‘Almost Too Intolerable a Burthen’: The Winter Exodus from Missouri, 1838–39.” Journal of Mormon History 18 (Fall 1992): 6–40.

  13. 13

    Over six thousand militiamen were deployed during the 1838 Mormon War. In February of the following year, the Missouri legislature began the process of appropriating as much as $200,000 for “paying the expenses of the troops called out to drive the mormons from the State.” (Gentry and Compton, Fire and Sword, 496; An Act to Authorise the Procurement of a Loan of Money to the State of Missouri, for the Purpose of Paying the Volunteers and Militia That Have Been Engaged in the Service of the State, and for Other Purposes [9 Feb. 1839], Laws of the State of Missouri [1838–1839], pp. 79–80, sec. 1; John Smith, St. Louis, to Lilburn W. Boggs, Jefferson City, MO, 4 Mar. 1839, in Journal of the House of Representatives, of the State of Missouri, 610–611; Pratt, History of the Late Persecution, 70, emphasis in original.)  

    Gentry, Leland Homer, and Todd M. Compton. Fire and Sword: A History of the Latter-day Saints in Northern Missouri, 1836–39. Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2011.

    Laws of the State of Missouri, Passed at the First Session of the Tenth General Assembly, Begun and Held at the City of Jefferson, on Monday, the Nineteenth Day of November, in the Year of Our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Eight. Jefferson, MO: Calvin Gunn, 1838.

    Journal, of the House of Representatives, of the State of Missouri, at the First Session of the Tenth General Assembly, Begun and Held at the City of Jefferson, on Monday, the Nineteenth Day of November, in the Year of Our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Eight. Jefferson City, MO: Calvin Gunn, 1839.

  14. 14

    See Psalm 137:1–2.  

  15. 15

    In a memorial submitted to the United States Senate in January 1840, church leaders estimated losses of nearly two million dollars from stealing and vandalism committed by vigilantes and militiamen in Missouri. A circa 1843 register of affidavits, created by Thomas Bullock and containing bills of damages related to the loss of property in Missouri, estimated the figure to be $1,381,084.51½ (though Bullock’s register apparently omitted several affidavits). (Memorial to the United States Senate and House of Representatives, ca. 30 Oct. 1839–27 Jan. 1840; Thomas Bullock, “Bills,” in Mormon Redress Petitions, 1839–1845, CHL.)  

    Mormon Redress Petitions, 1839–1845. CHL. MS 2703.

  16. 16

    Following the expulsion of church members from Daviess and Caldwell counties, many refugees lacked adequate food, clothing, and shelter. On 11 December 1838 Missouri governor Lilburn W. Boggs signed a bill that appropriated $2,000 “for the relief of sundry persons in Caldwell and Daviess counties.” (An Act for the Relief of Sundry Persons in Caldwell and Daviess Counties [11 Dec. 1838], Laws of the State of Missouri [1838], pp. 314–315.)  

    Laws of the State of Missouri, Passed at the First Session of the Tenth General Assembly, Begun and Held at the City of Jefferson, on Monday, the Nineteenth Day of November, in the Year of Our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-Eight. Jefferson, MO: Calvin Gunn, 1838.

  17. 17

    Among those appointed to distribute necessities to the destitute were Henry McHenry and Elisha Cameron, the two men most often identified by name in Latter-day Saint accounts of these events. (“Theodore Turley’s Memorandums,” ca. 1845, [3], Historian’s Office, JS History Documents, ca. 1839–1860, CHL; History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, 143.)  

    Historian’s Office. Joseph Smith History Documents, 1839–1860. CHL. CR 100 396.

    History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri, Written and Compiled from the Most Authentic Official and Private Sources. . . . St. Louis: National Historical Co., 1886.

  18. 18

    In a circa 1845 memorandum, Theodore Turley recalled that Elisha Cameron drove pigs owned by the Daviess County Saints down into Caldwell County; there they were slaughtered (though not properly bled per tradition) and sold by Henry McHenry to destitute members of the church for four to five cents per pound. (“Theodore Turley’s Memorandums,” ca. 1845, [3], Historian’s Office, JS History Documents, ca. 1839–1860, CHL.)  

    Historian’s Office. Joseph Smith History Documents, 1839–1860. CHL. CR 100 396.

  19. 19

    See Proverbs 12:10.  

  20. 20

    Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to Parley P. Pratt, Manchester, England, 28 Oct. 1841, in Millennial Star, Nov. 1841, 2:109–110; Woodruff, Journal, 25 Dec. 1840 and 15 Jan. 1841.  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  21. 21

    1841 England Census, Middlesex Co., Hundred of Ossulstone [Finsbury Division], St. Luke’s Parish, Liberty of City Road East, Enumeration District 14, Ironmonger Row, Piece 666, bk. 6, p. 12; Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to Heber C. Kimball, 22 Oct. 1841, in Snow, Letterbook, [88]; Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to Parley P. Pratt, Manchester, England, 28 Oct. 1841, in Millennial Star, Nov. 1841, 2:109–110. St. Luke’s was a suburban parish of London, located in Finsbury Division, Ossulstone Hundred, Middlesex County, England. (Lewis, Topographical Dictionary of England, 3:171.)  

    Great Britain. Public Record Office. Census Returns of England and Wales. Microfilm. FHL.

    Snow, Lorenzo. Letterbook, ca. 1839–1846. CHL.

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

    Lewis, Samuel. A Topographical Dictionary of England: Comprising the Several Counties, Cities, Boroughs, Corporate, and Market Towns, Parishes, and Townships. . . . 5th ed. 4 vols. London: S. Lewis and Co., 1842.

  22. 22

    Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to Parley P. Pratt, Manchester, England, 28 Oct. 1841, in Millennial Star, Nov. 1841, 2:109–110; Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to Wilford Woodruff, 27 Oct. 1841, in Snow, Letterbook, [117]. This same assumption was repeated in at least one other English newspaper and two medical journals. (“Coroners’ Inquests,” Times [London], 4 Nov. 1841, 6; “Effects of Prayer and Cayenne Pepper on Inflammation of the Bowels,” 141–142; “Fanaticism versus the Profession,” Medical Times, 13 Nov. 1841, 80.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

    Snow, Lorenzo. Letterbook, ca. 1839–1846. CHL.

    Times. London. 1785–.

    “Effects of Prayer and Cayenne Pepper on Inflammation of the Bowels.” Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 3, no. 7 (13 Nov. 1841): 141–142.

    Medical Times. London. 1839–1853.

  23. 23

    Religious healing rituals included anointing with oil and blessing by the laying on of hands as well as baptism for healing. For contemporary accounts of these healing rituals, see, for example, Revelation, 9 Feb. 1831 [D&C 42:44]; Minutes, 8 Sept. 1834; McLellin, Journal, 1 May 1836; Woodruff, Journal, 22 July 1839, 15 May 1842; and “Conference Minutes,” Times and Seasons, 15 Apr. 1842, 3:763.  

    McLellin, William E. Journal, Apr.–June 1836. William E. McLellin, Papers, 1831–1836, 1877–1878. CHL. MS 13538, box 1, fd. 6. Also available as Jan Shipps and John W. Welch, eds., The Journals of William E. McLellin, 1831–1836 (Provo, UT: BYU Studies; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994).

    Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. MS 1352.

  24. 24

    Bush, “Mormon Tradition,” 397–420; Divett, “Medicine and the Mormons,” 19–23.  

    Bush, Lester E. “The Mormon Tradition.” In Caring and Curing: Health and Medicine in the Western Religious Traditions, edited by Ronald L. Numbers and Darrel W. Amundsen, 397–420. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

    Divett, Robert T. “Medicine and the Mormons: A Historical Perspective.” Dialogue 12, no. 3 (Fall 1979): 16–25.

  25. 25

    Rothstein, American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century, 34–36, 85–87; Rosenberg, Care of Strangers, 18–20.  

    Rothstein, William G. American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century: From Sects to Science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

    Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System. New York: Basic Books, 1987.

  26. 26

    This period predated the acceptance of germ theory (or the belief that infectious disease was caused by the presence and spread of microscopic organisms) as well as related advances in bacteriology, immunization, and sterilization. (See Waller, Discovery of the Germ, chaps. 6–7; and Rothstein, American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century, 26–27, 45–52.)  

    Waller, John. The Discovery of the Germ: Twenty Years That Transformed the Way We Think about Disease. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

    Rothstein, William G. American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century: From Sects to Science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

  27. 27

    Refuting heroic medical practices such as calomel purging, Thomson noted, “Much of what is at this day called medicine, is deadly poison, and were people to know what is offered them of this kind they would absolutely refuse ever to receive it as a medicine.” (Thomson, New Guide to Health, 184, 202–203.)  

    Thomson, Samuel. New Guide to Health; or, Botanic Family Physician. Containing a Complete System of Practice . . . to Which Is Prefixed a Narrative of the Life and Medical Discoveries of the Author. Boston: By the author, 1822.

  28. 28

    Haller, People’s Doctors, 83, 239–240; Bush, “Mormon Tradition,” 397–420; Divett, “Medicine and the Mormons,” 19–20.  

    Haller, John S., Jr. The People’s Doctors: Samuel Thomson and the American Botanical Movement, 1790–1860. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2000.

    Bush, Lester E. “The Mormon Tradition.” In Caring and Curing: Health and Medicine in the Western Religious Traditions, edited by Ronald L. Numbers and Darrel W. Amundsen, 397–420. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

    Divett, Robert T. “Medicine and the Mormons: A Historical Perspective.” Dialogue 12, no. 3 (Fall 1979): 16–25.

  29. 29

    The original London Dispatch article has not been located; an article printed in the 4 November 1841 issue of the London Times used similar language in describing the events. (“Coroners’ Inquests,” Times [London], 4 Nov. 1841, 6.)  

    Times. London. 1785–.

  30. 30

    Islington was a suburban parish of London, located in Finsbury Division, Ossulstone Hundred, Middlesex County, England. (Lewis, Topographical Dictionary of England, 2:569.)  

    Lewis, Samuel. A Topographical Dictionary of England: Comprising the Several Counties, Cities, Boroughs, Corporate, and Market Towns, Parishes, and Townships. . . . 5th ed. 4 vols. London: S. Lewis and Co., 1842.

  31. 31

    See James 5:14.  

  32. 32

    Believing that cold caused illness, and that treatment producing heat would aid in recovery, practitioners of the Thomsonian method often used plants such as cayenne pepper in their medicinal recipes. In Thomsonian Materia Medica, Samuel Thomson wrote, “As a medicine, it [cayenne] is useful in cases of enfeebled and languid stomach, and is prescribed with happy effects in most of the chronic diseases of our country.” (Thomson, Thomsonian Materia Medica, 506, 591.)  

    Thomson, Samuel. The Thomsonian Materia Medica; or, Botanic Family Physician: Comprising a Philosophical Theory, the Natural Organization and Assumed Principles of Animal and Vegetable Life: To Which Are Added the Description of Plants and Their Various Compounds: Together with Practical Illustrations, Including Much Other Useful Matter. 12th ed. Albany: J. Munsell, 1841.

  33. 33

    See “Coroners’ Inquests,” Times (London), 4 Nov. 1841, 6; “Effects of Prayer and Cayenne Pepper on Inflammation of the Bowels,” Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal, 13 Nov. 1841, 141–142; “Fanaticism versus the Profession,” Medical Times, 13 Nov. 1841, 80.  

    Times. London. 1785–.

    “Effects of Prayer and Cayenne Pepper on Inflammation of the Bowels.” Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 3, no. 7 (13 Nov. 1841): 141–142.

    Medical Times. London. 1839–1853.

  34. 34

    It appears that some of Morgan’s caretakers were tried for negligence in her death but were eventually acquitted. In an 11 November 1841 letter, Lorenzo Snow informed his parents that “a Coronor’s Inquest was held over her [Morgan’s] body They were very anxious to bring in a verdict of ‘manslaughter’ but finely concluded the evidence was not hardly strong enough so we escaped Newgate [Prison] this time.” (Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to Oliver and Rosetta Snow, 11 Nov. 1841, in Lorenzo Snow, Journal, [122]–[123], underlining in original.)  

    Snow, Lorenzo. Journals, 1836–1845, 1872. CHL. MS 1330.

  35. 35

    Variously translated as “Oh the times! Oh the customs!” or “Shame on the age and on its principles!,” this Latin phrase was famously used in a speech by Roman orator and lawyer Cicero in 63 BC. (Yonge, Orations of Cicero against Catiline, 280.)  

    Yonge, C. D., trans. The Orations of Cicero against Catiline. London: G. Bell and Sons, 1919.

  36. 36

    A revelation published in the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants indicated that the ancient prophets Peter, James, and John ordained and confirmed JS and Oliver Cowdery as “apostles and especial witnesses” and committed to them the “keys of my [the Lord’s] kingdom.” (Revelation, ca. Aug. 1835 [D&C 27:12–13].)  

  37. 37

    Lorenzo Snow, who was living with the Morgans at the time of Elizabeth’s death, indicated that she “continually expressed a wish that no doctor should administer her medicines; and particularly requested that no one should cast any reflections upon her dear husband and children because no doctor had been employed, for she wanted no physician but the Lord.” (Lorenzo Snow, London, England, to Parley P. Pratt, Manchester, England, 28 Oct. 1841, in Millennial Star, Nov. 1841, 2:109, italics in original.)  

    Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. Manchester, England, 1840–1842; Liverpool, 1842–1932; London, 1932–1970.

  38. 38

    This refers to the Schwarzenau Brethren, which was a Christian denomination founded by religious refugees in Schwarzenau, in what is now Germany, in 1708. Members of the Brethren migrated to the United States in 1719 and organized a congregation near Germantown, Pennsylvania, in 1723. In America they were often referred to as “German Baptists,” “Dunkers,” or “Dunkards,” in reference to their belief in threefold baptism. (Durnbaugh, Fruit of the Vine, 25–29, 74–77, 118, 173–174.)  

    Durnbaugh, Donald F. Fruit of the Vine: A History of the Brethren, 1708–1995. Elgin, IL: Brethren Press, 1997.

  39. 39

    A reference to the followers of Joanna Southcott, who were often referred to as “Southcottians.” While working as a domestic servant in Exeter, England, in the early 1790s, Southcott began to have visions of the end of the world and Christ’s second coming. She recorded her prophecies, hundreds of which were later published, and by the mid-1810s had gained at least twelve thousand followers in England. (Southcott, Strange Effects of Faith, 5; Hopkins, Woman to Deliver Her People, xvii–xviii, 76–79, 83–84; Lockley, Visionary Religion and Radicalism in Early Industrial England, 3–4.)  

    Southcott, Joanna. The Strange Effects of Faith; With Remarkable Prophecies (Made in 1792, &c.) of Things Which Are to Come: Also Some Account of My Life. Exeter, England: By the author; T. Brice, no date.

    Hopkins, James K. A Woman to Deliver Her People: Joanna Southcott and English Millenar- ianism in an Era of Revolution. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982.

    Lockley, Philip. Visionary Religion and Radicalism in Early Industrial England: From Southcott to Socialism. Oxford Theological Monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

  40. 40

    A reference to the followers of Jemima Wilkinson, a preacher who established a religious society referred to as the Society of Universal Friends in the late 1700s. (See Moyer, Public Universal Friend, 2–3.)  

    Moyer, Paul B. The Public Universal Friend: Jemima Wilkinson and Religious Enthusiasm in Revolutionary America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015.

  41. 41

    JS, Journal, 5 Jan. 1842; Letter to Edward Hunter, 5 Jan. 1842; Agreement with Ebenezer Robinson, 4 Feb. 1842.